Antibiotics, Antimicrobial Resistance
As infections from drug-resistant microbes continue to rise, the development of new antibiotics has declined since the golden age of antibiotic discovery in the mid-20th century.
Patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae infections have multisystem disease and exposure to carbapenems and aminoglycosides.
For patients with Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections and ceftriaxone resistance, treatment with piperacillin-tazobactam compared with meropenem did not result in a non-inferior 30-day mortality.
The 68-year-old patient reported having a fever for 1 week followed by progressive, painful swelling on the right side of his neck for 2 months.
Daily prophylaxis with TMP-SMX was not associated with change in risk for skin and soft tissue or sino-pulmonary infections, or pharyngitis in children.
For infants with uncomplicated, late-onset GBS bacteremia, a shortened IV course of antibiotic therapy is sometimes prescribed and is associated with low rates of disease recurrence and treatment failure.
The inappropriate use of antibiotics as prophylaxis and treatment in acute pancreatitis is common, highlighting the efforts required for antibiotic stewardship.
In acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, prophylactic antibiotics reduce the overall infection rate, but do not reduce the risk for pneumonia, death, or dependency.
Treatment with intravenous and oral delafloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic with gram-negative and gram-positive activity, was comparable to vancomycin/aztreonam in improving clinical signs and symptoms in acute bacterial and skin structure infections.
Antipseudomonal combination therapy has shown poorer efficacy than antipseudomonal monotherapy in individuals with suspected pseudomonal pneumonia.
No significant differences in clinical cure rates were observed between short-course and prolonged-course antimicrobial therapy in patients with intraabdominal infections.
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