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HIV/AIDS Advisor Improving the Care of Aging Adults Living With HIV

Improving the Care of Aging Adults Living With HIV

Two HIV experts discuss their ongoing research involving HIV in aging adults and provide insights on how some major health concerns can be addressed to improve the overall care and outcomes of older adults with HIV.

Hepatitis Advisor Clinical Significance of the Isolated Anti-HBc Serologic Pattern

Clinical Significance of the Isolated Anti-HBc Serologic Pattern

A serological pattern called isolated anti-HBc, characterized by the presence of hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) and the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B surface antibody, is explored further in the Q&A.

Respiratory A Pan-Tuberculosis Regimen: The Debate Continues

A Pan-Tuberculosis Regimen: The Debate Continues

Last month the South Africa National Tuberculosis Program decided to make oral bedaqualine available for all rifampin-resistant TB (RR-TB) in place of — the often more toxic — injectable drugs.

Nosocomial Infections Identifying the Source of C difficile in Hospitalized Patients

Identifying the Source of C difficile in Hospitalized Patients

Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of healthcare-associated infections, with as many as 500,000 cases occurring annually in the United States. Efforts to prevent transmission within hospitals typically focus on patients with symptomatic Clostridium difficile infection.

Vector-borne Illnesses Diagnosing Lyme Disease in Children With Neuropsychiatric Illness

Diagnosing Lyme Disease in Children With Neuropsychiatric Illness

Health professionals from many disciplines need to be able to recognize the clinical presentations, essential diagnostic tests, and treatment approach of Lyme neuroborreliosis.

HIV/AIDS Advisor Mothers Infected With HIV: How to Advise Mothers Who Wish to Breastfeed

Mothers Infected With HIV: How to Advise Mothers Who Wish to Breastfeed

Some advocates say that women with undetectable viral loads should be able to breastfeed after thorough consultation with their clinicians.

HIV/AIDS Insight Into the HIV Self-Testing Debate

Insight Into the HIV Self-Testing Debate

Although the CDC recommends routine HIV screening for all people age 13-64 years, numerous barriers to HIV testing in healthcare settings have been identified, including lack of access and fear of stigma and discrimination.

HIV/AIDS Advisor The Uncertain Association Between Abacavir and the Risk for Acute Myocardial Infarction

The Uncertain Association Between Abacavir and the Risk for Acute Myocardial Infarction

A higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors may be partially responsible for the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV.

Hepatitis Advisor Point-Counterpoint: Should We Implement Needle Exchange Programs for the Prevention of Hepatitis C Virus?

Point-Counterpoint: Should We Implement Needle Exchange Programs for the Prevention of Hepatitis C Virus?

Of the approximately 12.7 to 16 million people who inject drugs (PWID) worldwide, an estimated 10 million individuals have hepatitis C virus (HCV), making it the most prevalent infectious disease in this population.

HIV/AIDS Advisor Influence of Vitamin D in HIV Infection

Influence of Vitamin D in HIV Infection

The connection between vitamin D deficiency and the incidence and severity of HIV is examined in a featured article.

Hepatitis Advisor Can Direct-Acting Antivirals Finally Achieve Hepatitis C Elimination?

Can Direct-Acting Antivirals Finally Achieve Hepatitis C Elimination?

Unrestricted use of DAAs may be an invaluable component of preventing HCV transmission by reducing the infectious pool of individuals.

Topics Exploring the Link Between Persistent Infection and Mood Disorders

Exploring the Link Between Persistent Infection and Mood Disorders

It has been proposed that inflammation stemming from persistent pathogens may influence the development of mood disorders.

Topics A Clinical Update on the Prevention, Treatment of Periprosthetic Joint Infections

A Clinical Update on the Prevention, Treatment of Periprosthetic Joint Infections

Alberto V. Carli, MD, and Ashley E. Levack, MD, MAS, discuss preventive and treatment options for periprosthetic joint infections.

HIV/AIDS Telling Children Their HIV Status: Interview With Dr Elizabeth Lowenthal

Telling Children Their HIV Status: Interview With Dr Elizabeth Lowenthal

Infectious Disease Advisor speaks with Elizabeth D. Lowenthal, MD, about the challenges associated with revealing HIV seropositive status to children.

Sepsis Prognostic Biomarkers to Guide Antibiotic Therapy in Critically Ill Patients

Prognostic Biomarkers to Guide Antibiotic Therapy in Critically Ill Patients

Proadrenomedullin and procalcitonin have demonstrated superiority to C-reactive protein for predicting mortality and guiding antimicrobial therapy in critically ill patients with fever.

Practice Management Does Political Affiliation Influence Patient Care? An Interview With Anupam B. Jena, MD

Does Political Affiliation Influence Patient Care? An Interview With Anupam B. Jena, MD

To shed further light on the study's implications, MPR interviewed lead author Anupam B. Jena, MD, PhD, Ruth L. Newhouse Associate Professor, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Hepatitis Advisor Etiology of Acute Liver Failure Can Yield Surprising Findings

Etiology of Acute Liver Failure Can Yield Surprising Findings

Before the advent of potent antiviral agents, liver transplantation was the only treatment option for patients with hepatitis and a poor prognosis; antiretrovirals can now provide a potentially curative approach.

Features How Many Chances Are Too Many? Treating Recurrent Infective Endocarditis in IV Drug Users

How Many Chances Are Too Many? Treating Recurrent Infective Endocarditis in IV Drug Users

How many second chances should a drug user get? As many as it takes for us — physicians, society, government, and the healthcare system — to get it right.

HIV/AIDS Psychosocial Interventions in HIV: How Best to Support HIV-Positive Patients

Psychosocial Interventions in HIV: How Best to Support HIV-Positive Patients

Mental health professionals supporting patients living with HIV need to make space for their patients to process the emotional effect of their diagnosis, but not to make assumptions about what it means to them.

Emerging Diseases Platform Manufacturing May Speed Pandemic Vaccine Development

Platform Manufacturing May Speed Pandemic Vaccine Development

With the advent of platform manufacturing technology, vaccines can be developed quickly to stop the spread of outbreaks.

Hepatitis Advisor Addressing Palliative Care in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Addressing Palliative Care in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Research shows that palliative care can help with symptom management, care coordination, therapeutic decision making, and the psychosocial aspects of living with hepatocellular carcinoma.

Vector-borne Illnesses Using Digital Technology to Detect Vector-Borne Diseases

Using Digital Technology to Detect Vector-Borne Diseases

Although internet-based surveillance methods have recently been established to enhance vector-borne disease surveillance, assessment of their utility is required to determine how best to position this technology to improve infectious disease outcomes.

Respiratory Could a New Universal Tuberculosis Regimen Help End the TB Pandemic?

Could a New Universal Tuberculosis Regimen Help End the TB Pandemic?

The Lancet Respiratory Medicine staged a debate between proponents and opponents of pan-TB regimens to tackle the current suboptimal worldwide management of TB resistance.

Mycoses Fungal Infections of the CNS: Diagnostic and Treatment Approaches

Fungal Infections of the CNS: Diagnostic and Treatment Approaches

While immunocompromised patients are the most susceptible to CNS fungal infections, they can also occur in immunocompetent patients undergoing invasive procedures such as neurosurgery and in patients exposed to contaminated devices or drugs.

HIV/AIDS Importance of PrEP for People Involved in Criminal Justice Systems

Importance of PrEP for People Involved in Criminal Justice Systems

Important strategies to consider for people involved in the criminal justice systems include linkage to antiretroviral therapy for those who are HIV positive and linkage to PrEP postrelease and/or beginning PrEP before people are released so they build up adherence.

Practice Management What a Building Contractor Taught Me About Informed Consent

What a Building Contractor Taught Me About Informed Consent

Identifying a patient's preferences and goals leads to a care plan that can reflect those goals, and this may improve patient satisfaction.

Hepatitis Advisor Biologic Psoriasis Therapies Pose Limited Risk for Hepatitis B Reactivation

Biologic Psoriasis Therapies Pose Limited Risk for Hepatitis B Reactivation

In patients with psoriasis who were previously exposed to HBV or who have chronic HBV, immunosuppressive therapies can cause viral reactivation, although the risk is minimal for patients with resolved or occult infection.

Infections in Immunocompromised Patients Infections Complicating the Use of Monoclonal Antibodies for Malignancy

Infections Complicating the Use of Monoclonal Antibodies for Malignancy

In this review, David C. Helfgott, MD, editorial advisory board member for Infectious Disease Advisor, focuses on infectious complications from the use of monoclonal antibodies for malignancy.

HIV/AIDS Why Treating Major Depressive Disorder Improves Outcomes in HIV

Why Treating Major Depressive Disorder Improves Outcomes in HIV

Mental health problems are 1 of the most important reasons for failing to engage in long-term control of HIV.

Sepsis How Important Is the Timing of Antibiotics for Surviving Sepsis?

How Important Is the Timing of Antibiotics for Surviving Sepsis?

Early antibiotic administration in treating infection has evident biological plausibility, however, time-sensitivity to outcomes appears to be most relevant in septic shock.

Hepatitis Advisor Patients With Rheumatic Diseases Need to Be Monitored for HBV Reactivation

Patients With Rheumatic Diseases Need to Be Monitored for HBV Reactivation

Clinicians need to monitor reactivation of the hepatitis B virus in patients with rheumatic diseases by testing for elevation of liver enzymes and HBV DNA levels.

Nosocomial Infections Curbing Overuse of Blood Cultures in the Emergency Department

Curbing Overuse of Blood Cultures in the Emergency Department

Training on adherence to guidelines, the development of guidelines specific to the pediatric population, and the employment of tools and techniques to decrease contamination of blood cultures could decrease the overuse of blood cultures.

Hepatitis Advisor Transfusion-Transmitted Hepatitis B Virus: Minimizing the Risk

Transfusion-Transmitted Hepatitis B Virus: Minimizing the Risk

The risk for HBV transfusion-transmitted infection has been significantly reduced in the last few decades by the careful selection of donors and testing of blood donations, using sensitive serological and molecular screening techniques.

HIV/AIDS Generic HIV Medicines: Boon or Bust?

Generic HIV Medicines: Boon or Bust?

Generic antiretroviral agents have had a dramatic effect on outcomes in developing nations, and their availability in developed countries is rapidly expanding as more brand-name drugs are coming off patent. But unique challenges surrounding their use remain.

Influenza Improving Efforts to Prepare for Influenza Epidemics

Improving Efforts to Prepare for Influenza Epidemics

Although substantial emphasis is placed on vaccinations in considering how to limit the spread of influenza, simple hygienic methods have been found to be the most effective and should be more widely supported.

Hepatitis Advisor Closing the Gap in Managing Viral Hepatitis Infections in Refugees and Immigrants

Closing the Gap in Managing Viral Hepatitis Infections in Refugees and Immigrants

To meet the goals of the World Health Organization for reducing new infections and decreasing deaths associated with hepatitis B and C virus by 2030, people on the margins of society will need to be tested and treated, including refugees and migrants from endemic regions, as well as people who inject drugs.

Antibiotics, Antimicrobial Resistance Role of Vaccines in the Fight Against Antimicrobial Resistance

Role of Vaccines in the Fight Against Antimicrobial Resistance

The potential role of vaccinations in combatting antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is currently undervalued. The distribution and development of new vaccines should be priorities in efforts to address the AMR crisis.

Skin Infections When to Suspect GBS Cellulitis and Necrotizing Fasciitis in Infants

When to Suspect GBS Cellulitis and Necrotizing Fasciitis in Infants

GBS infections in infants, cellulitis and necrotizing fasciitis, although uncommon in infants, requires swift treatment with antibiotics and occasionally surgical debridement.

HIV/AIDS Emerging Technologies to Manage Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence

Emerging Technologies to Manage Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence

The rapidly developing landscape of antiretroviral therapy adherence monitoring has great potential for clinical application, but cost-effectiveness and feasibility studies are needed to define the appropriate roles for these new technologies.

Vector-borne Illnesses Malaria Therapy During Pregnancy Needs a Translational Booster

Malaria Therapy During Pregnancy Needs a Translational Booster

First trimester treatment for malaria could change with the results of 1 of the most robust meta-analyses to date that compared artemisinin-based therapy vs quinine.

Antibiotics, Antimicrobial Resistance Combating Medically Important Antibiotic Use in Food-Producing Animals

Combating Medically Important Antibiotic Use in Food-Producing Animals

The new WHO guidelines restricts antibiotic use in animals for purposes of growth promotion as well as avoidance of use for disease prevention.

Pneumonia Pneumonia: Inflammation Linked to Cardiovascular Complications

Pneumonia: Inflammation Linked to Cardiovascular Complications

Community-acquired pneumonia and other acute infections can cause or exacerbate cardiovascular complications.

Treatments Treating Acute Urinary Tract Infection in Postmenopausal Women

Treating Acute Urinary Tract Infection in Postmenopausal Women

Expert perspective on management and treatment of acute urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women.

Vector-borne Illnesses Major Advances on Horizon for Tick-Borne Disease Testing

Major Advances on Horizon for Tick-Borne Disease Testing

Prompt diagnosis of tick-borne diseases is essential but testing methods have been imprecise. Learn about some recent testing advances for Lyme disease and other tick-borne illnesses.

HIV/AIDS Advisor Inflammation May Hold Key to Noncommunicable Disease in HIV

Inflammation May Hold Key to Noncommunicable Disease in HIV

As more deaths among individuals living with HIV are not directly associated with communicable diseases, the influence of sex hormones and inflammation on morbidity is coming under scrutiny.

Sepsis Sepsis Recovery Requires an All-Hands Approach

Sepsis Recovery Requires an All-Hands Approach

After hospital discharge for sepsis, the healthcare team should focus on identifying new functional, mental, and cognitive impairments and referring patients to appropriate treatment; reviewing and adjusting long-term medications; and evaluating for treatable conditions that commonly result in hospitalizations.

Hepatitis Advisor Managing HBV Infection Following Liver Transplant: Expert Q&A

Managing HBV Infection Following Liver Transplant: Expert Q&A

In the past 2 decades, prophylactic antiviral therapies have drastically reduced the rates of HBV recurrence, allograft loss, and mortality in patients undergoing liver transplantation.

Hepatitis Advisor Evolving Recognition of Chronic Hepatitis C Infection as a Modifiable Risk Factor for CVD

Evolving Recognition of Chronic Hepatitis C Infection as a Modifiable Risk Factor for CVD

Review of subclinical and clinical cardiovascular diseases in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection.

Hepatitis Advisor HCV in Older Adults: Effects of Prolonged Infection, Aging-Related Mechanisms, and Treatment

HCV in Older Adults: Effects of Prolonged Infection, Aging-Related Mechanisms, and Treatment

Despite worse outcomes in older adults, treatment efficacy and safety of direct-acting antivirals appear to be similar between older adults and younger patients, based on limited available data. Age should not be considered a barrier to treatment in older HCV-infected adults.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea: Prevention Strategies for a Growing Threat

Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea: Prevention Strategies for a Growing Threat

Learn about drugs in the pipeline for treatment-resistant gonorrhea.

HIV/AIDS Advisor HIV in Neonates: Additional Treatment Options Needed

HIV in Neonates: Additional Treatment Options Needed

The goal of ART in neonates has expanded from reducing morbidity and mortality to the possibility of facilitating remission, but further research is needed to advance this goal, and additional treatment options are also needed for this population.

Hepatitis Advisor Simplifying Viral Hepatitis Testing Will Slow the Spread of Disease

Simplifying Viral Hepatitis Testing Will Slow the Spread of Disease

Experts from the World Health Organization and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in the United Kingdom discuss the imperative to stop viral hepatitis, current diagnostic challenges, and the future of testing.

Treatments Reason for Hope: Promising Gram-Negative Infection Treatments in the Pipeline

Reason for Hope: Promising Gram-Negative Infection Treatments in the Pipeline

Dr McKinnell provides a summary of drugs in development for infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, including carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

Prevention Strategies for Preventing Group B Streptococcus in Infants

Strategies for Preventing Group B Streptococcus in Infants

Expert from the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, a division of the CDC, discusses prevention strategies for group B streptococcus in infants, including the development of a maternal vaccine.

Hepatitis Advisor Generic DAAs: A Step Closer to Eradicating HCV in Lower-Income Countries

Generic DAAs: A Step Closer to Eradicating HCV in Lower-Income Countries

The availability of low-cost generic DAAs in lower income countries are a major step forward in combating HCV in these countries, but substantial work is still needed to put the WHO's goal of HCV elimination by 2030 within reach.

HIV/AIDS Vagus Nerve Stimulation May Improve HIV-Associated Depression

Vagus Nerve Stimulation May Improve HIV-Associated Depression

Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation could provide a safe alternative treatment in HIV-depression by targeting both depression and other comorbidities that can burden people living with HIV.

Influenza Universal Influenza Vaccine: A Game Changer in Prevention

Universal Influenza Vaccine: A Game Changer in Prevention

A dedicated research effort led by NIH's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases is aimed at developing a universal influenza vaccine that would confer better and longer-lasting protection against influenza virus strains.

Practice Management Machine Learning Algorithms in Medicine: What Are the Pitfalls?

Machine Learning Algorithms in Medicine: What Are the Pitfalls?

Experts discusses the potential pitfalls of machine learning algorithms in medicine.

Practice Management Conscious vs Unconscious Decision-Making in Medicine

Conscious vs Unconscious Decision-Making in Medicine

Evaluating conscious vs unconscious decision making in medicine.

Practice Management Effects of Computerized Decision Support Systems in Medicine

Effects of Computerized Decision Support Systems in Medicine

Evaluating the effects of computerized decision support systems in medicine.

Practice Management Bias in Clinical Research: The Streetlight Effect

Bias in Clinical Research: The Streetlight Effect

Evidence of the streetlight effect can be found across several fields, from physics and astronomy, to economics, in which cases investigators draw suspect conclusions from analysis of irrelevant data. Medicine, unsurprisingly, has not been immune, particularly in cancer research.

Practice Management Healthcare Inequality in America: What Are the Contributing Factors?

Healthcare Inequality in America: What Are the Contributing Factors?

Differences in life expectancy have widened between wealthy and low-income Americans: the poorest 1% of citizens have a life expectancy 10.1 years and 14.6 years shorter for women and men, respectively, compared with the richest 1%.

Pediatric Illnesses Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection: Diagnostic and Treatment Challenges

Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection: Diagnostic and Treatment Challenges

Experts discuss the various imaging modalities for children who require diagnostic workup beyond urine culture, as well as the consequences of overusing antibiotics and antibiotic route of administration.

Pneumonia Routine Chest Radiographs Not Recommended in Suspected Pediatric Pneumonia

Routine Chest Radiographs Not Recommended in Suspected Pediatric Pneumonia

Chest X-rays do not differentiate between viral and bacterial pathogens, and they do not subsequently alter the course of treatment.

Hepatitis Treatment Regimens and Recommendations for HIV/HCV Coinfection

Treatment Regimens and Recommendations for HIV/HCV Coinfection

Experts discuss the management of drug-drug interactions in patients receiving treatment for HIV and HCV coinfection.

HIV/AIDS Can We Prevent HIV and STIs Through School Programs?

Can We Prevent HIV and STIs Through School Programs?

Although a positive impact on behavior change has been reported following the implementation of curriculum-based programs, there is a lack of clear evidence that school-based educational interventions directly prevent HIV/STIs.

Influenza Can the Influenza Vaccine Prevent Acute Otitis Media?

Can the Influenza Vaccine Prevent Acute Otitis Media?

Vaccination may confer modest reductions in acute otitis media (AOM) and AOM-targeted antibiotic use but use of influenza vaccine as a strategy to reduce AOM is likely unjustified.

HIV/AIDS How HIV Affects Cervical Cancer Risk and Outcomes

How HIV Affects Cervical Cancer Risk and Outcomes

Women with HIV have an increased risk for persistent HPV infection, which frequently progresses to cervical cancer, and they should be warned of their increased risk for HPV and cervical cancer and, when appropriate, advised to undergo HPV vaccination.

Emerging Diseases Climate Change: Effects on the Incidence and Distribution of Infectious Diseases

Climate Change: Effects on the Incidence and Distribution of Infectious Diseases

Without proactive measures and response, the changing climate is projected to continue to adversely affect the global incidence and distribution of infectious diseases and cause 250,000 additional deaths per year between 2030 and 2050.

Diagnostics MicroRNAs in Infectious Disease: Emerging Clinical Applications

MicroRNAs in Infectious Disease: Emerging Clinical Applications

MicroRNAs are currently under investigation for various clinical applications in infectious disease because of their role in host response to infection and effects on innate and adaptive immune pathways.

HIV/AIDS Pausing ART to Identify Biomarkers for HIV RNA Rebound: Safety and Ethical Considerations

Pausing ART to Identify Biomarkers for HIV RNA Rebound: Safety and Ethical Considerations

Dr Gianella Weibel talks with Dr Li and Dr Dubé, investigators of a new study from the AIDS Clinical Trials Group, which uses an intensively monitored antiretroviral pause to identify changes in HIV reservoirs after anti-HIV medications are stopped.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases Seminal HPV Infection Prevalent Worldwide, May Affect Male Fertility

Seminal HPV Infection Prevalent Worldwide, May Affect Male Fertility

Study was the first to examine the geographical variation of seminal HPV prevalence, showing a relatively high prevalence in fertility clinic attendees when compared to the general population.

Prevention Improving Campaigns Regarding the Value of Adult Vaccines

Improving Campaigns Regarding the Value of Adult Vaccines

Educational campaigns regarding the value of vaccines should go beyond facts and statistics to integrating social psychological considerations with health communication principles.

Influenza Fast Track Designation for Novel Monoclonal Antibody Targeting Influenza A

Fast Track Designation for Novel Monoclonal Antibody Targeting Influenza A

The FDA has granted Fast Track designation to Visterra's lead product, VIS410.

Hepatitis The Changing Face of HCV: Role of the Opioid Epidemic

The Changing Face of HCV: Role of the Opioid Epidemic

The opioid epidemic has fueled the transmission of HCV, particularly among younger persons, who are often unaware of their risks and prevented from receiving timely treatment due to a variety of care barriers, even in settings ideally suited to identifying and treating HCV.

Respiratory Update on Latent Tuberculosis Testing and Treatment

Update on Latent Tuberculosis Testing and Treatment

A representative from the California Department of Public Health discusses latent TB infection testing and treatment recommendations and reasons why US physicians have been slow to test for and treat for the condition.

Regulatory Issues New Regulations and Code of Ethics for Research in the 21st Century

New Regulations and Code of Ethics for Research in the 21st Century

The 2017 revisions to the Common Rule deal largely with improving the transparency and clarity of intended uses under the current standard of informed consent, while introducing a new concept of "broad consent."

Hepatitis Racial Disparities in HCV Incidence and Treatment Outcomes

Racial Disparities in HCV Incidence and Treatment Outcomes

Racial disparities in HCV treatment outcomes can be partially explained by the differences in underlying immune/genetic characteristics of patients.

Antibiotics, Antimicrobial Resistance Antibiotic Innovation Is Losing Ground to Gram-Negative Bacteria

Antibiotic Innovation Is Losing Ground to Gram-Negative Bacteria

Experts discuss antibiotic classes in development, which agents holds the most promise, and how to prevent further resistance.

HIV/AIDS Linkage to HIV Care: To Give or Not to Give Financial Incentives?

Linkage to HIV Care: To Give or Not to Give Financial Incentives?

Use of incentives makes the most sense with disadvantaged populations including homeless, drug users, and people in developing countries.

Vector-borne Illnesses A New Generation of Challenges for the Traditional Yellow Fever Vaccine

A New Generation of Challenges for the Traditional Yellow Fever Vaccine

There is no cure or even effective antiviral therapy for yellow fever. Vaccination remains the sole route for preventing mortality from the disease, and WHO projections have already pointed to a significant global shortage.

Vector-borne Illnesses When and How to Test for Lyme Disease, a Growing Threat

When and How to Test for Lyme Disease, a Growing Threat

Diagnosing Lyme disease can be difficult because symptoms vary from one person to another and can resemble symptoms of other infectious diseases spread by ticks.

Nosocomial Infections Treatment of Neurologic Complications in Infective Endocarditis

Treatment of Neurologic Complications in Infective Endocarditis

Mortality rates associated with infective endocarditis range from 16% to 25%, with the highest rates observed among patients with nosocomial healthcare-associated infective endocarditis.

Ebola Evidence-Based Guidelines for Supportive Care in Ebola Treatment

Evidence-Based Guidelines for Supportive Care in Ebola Treatment

First-hand accounts of the care that was delivered during the 2013-16 West African outbreak of Ebola virus disease provided impetus for these guidelines.

Respiratory Challenges in Diagnosing Tuberculous Meningitis

Challenges in Diagnosing Tuberculous Meningitis

Diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis is challenging, although new, next-generation rapid POC testing holds promise for greatly improved sensitivity. Shorter and more effective treatments are needed.

GI Illness IDSA Updates Infectious Diarrhea Guidelines

IDSA Updates Infectious Diarrhea Guidelines

The Infectious Diseases Society of America updated its guidelines for the management of acute or persistent infectious diarrhea.

Hepatitis Short-Duration Treatment Regimens for Chronic HCV: Latest Insights

Short-Duration Treatment Regimens for Chronic HCV: Latest Insights

The high cost of DAA-based regimens remains an ethical issue and an obstacle to treatment accessibility. Shorter treatment regimens may offer substantial cost savings, improved treatment adherence, and a reduced rate of side effects.

Emerging Treatments Once-Daily Raltegravir Safe, Effective for Initial HIV Treatment

Once-Daily Raltegravir Safe, Effective for Initial HIV Treatment

Once-daily regimens have been shown to improve adherence to treatment with no adverse effect on outcomes in patients with HIV.

Hepatitis Challenges in Treating Genotype 3 Hepatitis C Virus

Challenges in Treating Genotype 3 Hepatitis C Virus

Data have shown patients with genotype 3 HCV have faster progression of fibrosis and higher rates of cirrhosis, severe steatosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Waterborne Illnesses Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Protective Against Oral Salmonella Typhi Challenge

Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Protective Against Oral Salmonella Typhi Challenge

Investigators review results from the first study to assess the efficacy of a Vi-conjugate vaccine using a controlled human infection model of typhoid fever.

GI Illness Better Detection and Treatment Needed for H pylori Infections in Children

Better Detection and Treatment Needed for H pylori Infections in Children

In recent years, a link between childhood Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer in adulthood has elevated the need to detect and treat H pylori in asymptomatic children.

Chlamydia Vaginal Microbiota Profile Predictive of Chlamydia Susceptibility

Vaginal Microbiota Profile Predictive of Chlamydia Susceptibility

Vaginal microbiota dominated by L iners has been shown to exhibit rapid change in composition in and out of community states similar to bacterial vaginosis.

Antibiotics, Antimicrobial Resistance Are Antibiotic Stewardship Programs the Antidote to Antibiotic Overuse?

Are Antibiotic Stewardship Programs the Antidote to Antibiotic Overuse?

Optimizing outcomes with an antibiotic stewardship programs requires a team approach that involves point-of-care providers.

Antibiotics, Antimicrobial Resistance Strategies for Preventing Antibiotic Resistance in Acne

Strategies for Preventing Antibiotic Resistance in Acne

Physicians can help avoid contributing to antibiotic resistance by recognizing and using appropriate alternative treatments, and having a strategy so that patients are not on antibiotics for a long period of time.

HIV/AIDS Assessing the Risk Factors of Neurocognitive Decline in HIV+ Individuals

Assessing the Risk Factors of Neurocognitive Decline in HIV+ Individuals

The incidence of neurocognitive impairment is high in HIV-infected population, despite the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART).

Antibiotics, Antimicrobial Resistance Combating Irrational and Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing Practices

Combating Irrational and Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing Practices

A substantial portion of cases of antibiotic overprescription are linked to overdiagnosis of conditions such as sinusitis and otitis media without meeting diagnostic criteria and with high variability in diagnosis by race and by clinician.

Hepatitis Treating Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Fight Against the Odds

Treating Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Fight Against the Odds

Despite continual efforts aimed at finding new treatment options, HCC still has a very low 5-year survival rate, less than 20%, as many patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage of the disease.

Skin Infections No Difference in Adverse Events Between Delafloxacin or Vancomycin/Aztreonam in ABSSSI

No Difference in Adverse Events Between Delafloxacin or Vancomycin/Aztreonam in ABSSSI

Incidence of adverse events with delafloxacin (Baxdela™, Melinta Therapeutics) was comparable to the combination regimen of vancomycin plus aztreonam across 2 phase 3 registrational ABSSSI studies.

Pneumonia Updated Guidelines for Management of Hospital-Acquired/Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia

Updated Guidelines for Management of Hospital-Acquired/Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia

An international panel of experts applied the GRADE system and choose 7 PICO questions to generate recommendations for HAP/VAP.

HIV/AIDS Why Patients Discontinue ART— and What You Can Do to Stop It

Why Patients Discontinue ART— and What You Can Do to Stop It

Learn more about when stopping antiretroviral therapy (ART) may be necessary, why patients discontinue ART, predicting viral suppression, and predicting and encouraging adherence.

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