Infantile immunization rates were higher among children whose caregivers received compliance-linked incentives when compared to those who received only mobile phone reminders and those who received no intervention.
Investigators assessed the need for conducting routine voiding cystourethrograms in infants diagnosed with urinary tract infection.
As long-term neurocognitive deficits can occur as a result of severe malaria, researchers assessed the potential neuroprotective effect of inhaled nitric oxide on children with the infection.
This will be the first systematic review and meta-analysis on risk factors for pneumonia among neonates in India.
Newborns receiving the oral human neonatal rotavirus vaccine (RV3-BB) with the first dose occurring either at birth or at 8 weeks experienced fewer cases of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis than those treated with placebo.
In the overall comparative meta-analyses, the multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B vaccine had increased immunogenicity (short-term and persistent) compared with recombinant meningococcal serogroup B vaccine against strain NZ98/254.
Children with tuberculosis who received 3 months of directly observed preventative therapy were >25 times more likely to complete their treatment regimen than those who received 9 months of self-administered therapy.
Human rhinovirus is common in febrile infants, and detection does not alter risk of concomitant UTI.
Respiratory viruses were identified in 55% of febrile infants; those older than 28 days had a lower risk of bacterial infection when they tested positive for a respiratory virus.
Study showed that very low birth weight infants exposed to gastric acid inhibitors have significantly increased odds of developing infections, and that the risk increases with each day of exposure.
Clofazimine was safe and well-tolerated as part of a multidrug regimen for the treatment of children with Mycobacterium abscessus odontogenic infections.
Postnatal cytomegalovirus (pCMV) infection in preterm infants associated with higher gross motor scores at 16 months of life and earlier age of onset of independent walking (AOIW). At 6 years of age, children with a history of pCMV infection had cognitive scores within normal limits for age, although with significantly lower verbal IQ scores compared to their non-infected counterparts.
Expert from the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, a division of the CDC, discusses prevention strategies for group B streptococcus in infants, including the development of a maternal vaccine.
MenB-FHbp was safe and immunogenic after dose 2 and dose 3 and was also associated with more injection-site reactions than hepatitis A virus vaccine and saline.
Young infants assessed for central nervous system infection rarely have herpes simplex virus.
Researchers found that 0.42% of study infants undergoing CSF culture for suspected meningitis tested positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. HSV infection was more common in infants aged 1-4 weeks when compared to infants from age 5-9 weeks.
Infants born via vaginal delivery to mothers exposed to intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for group B Streptococcus demonstrated altered fecal microbiota immediately following birth.
Majority of children presented with only 2 of 4 main symptoms (fever, maculopapular rash, conjunctivitis, and/or arthralgia).
Experts discuss the various imaging modalities for children who require diagnostic workup beyond urine culture, as well as the consequences of overusing antibiotics and antibiotic route of administration.
Chest X-rays do not differentiate between viral and bacterial pathogens, and they do not subsequently alter the course of treatment.
Vaccination may confer modest reductions in acute otitis media (AOM) and AOM-targeted antibiotic use but use of influenza vaccine as a strategy to reduce AOM is likely unjustified.
Pleural fluid lactic dehydrogenase and glucose are useful parameters in determining the severity of pediatric CAP.
The results of this study question the routine empirical use of macrolide combination therapy in this population.
Prospective studies are needed to determine the incidence of UTI in the NICU population without predisposing UTI factors when fluconazole prophylaxis is administered to examine whether routine urinalysis would still be justified.
Rate of infants with a UTI who received 4 or more days of intravenous antibiotics decreased from 2005 to 2015.
Zanamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor approved in the United States as an oral inhalation powder for acute, uncomplicated influenza in children ≥7 years of age and prophylaxis in children ≥5 years of age.
Identification of premature infants at low risk of early onset sepsis may help guide decisions for initiating and/or discontinuing empirical antibiotic treatments in the first days of life.
Researchers examine serious infection risk factors in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis receiving biologic therapy.
Study assessed the effects of weather trends on the occurrence and severity of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis in affected children.
New data shows a higher risk of respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization for preterm infants during the 2015-2016 season vs data from the previous season.
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