Intrapartum Azithromycin Decreases Maternal, Neonatal Infections

There was a lower incidence of maternal infections and infections among newborns with azithromycin.
There was a lower incidence of maternal infections and infections among newborns with azithromycin.

HealthDay News — Administration of azithromycin during labor is associated with a reduction in maternal and neonatal clinical infections, according to a study published in Pediatrics.

Claire Oluwalana, MD, from the Medical Research Council Unit in Banjul, the Gambia, and colleagues conducted a randomized trial involving 829 Gambian women in labor. Participants were given an oral dose of azithromycin or placebo and were followed for up to 8 weeks after delivery.

Eight infants died per arm during the follow-up period. There were no reports of maternal deaths or serious adverse events related to the intervention. 

The researchers found that the azithromycin group had a significantly lower incidence of maternal infections (3.6% vs 9.2%; relative risk [RR] 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22 to 0.71; P =.002), significantly lower prevalence of mastitis (1.4% vs 5.1%; RR 0.29; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.70; P =.005), and fever (1.9% vs 5.8%; RR 0.33; 95% CI, 0.15 to 0.74; P =.006). 

In the azithromycin group, newborns had a lower overall prevalence of infections (18.1% vs 23.8%; RR 0.76; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.99; P =.052) and skin infections (3.1% vs 6.4%; RR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.93; P =.34).

"Azithromycin given to women in labor decreases infections in both women and newborns during the puerperal period," the authors write.

References

Oluwalana C, Camara B, Bottomley C, et al. Azithromycin in labor lowers clinical infections in mothers and newborns: a double-blind trial. Pediatrics. 2017;139. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-2281

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