Respiratory

Primary Prophylaxis Reduces Pneumocystis Pneumonia in Rheumatic Disease

Primary Prophylaxis Reduces Pneumocystis Pneumonia in Rheumatic Disease

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Prolonged treatment with high-dose steroids is a significant risk factor for pneumocystis pneumonia in patients with hematologic malignancies, solid organ transplants, and rheumatic diseases.

Influenza Vaccination Rates Moderately Increase With Text Message Reminders

Influenza Vaccination Rates Moderately Increase With Text Message Reminders

SMS reminders are moderately effective in increasing the amount of people receiving the influenza vaccine.

Reduced Rate of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia With Nebulized Antibiotics

Reduced Rate of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia With Nebulized Antibiotics

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Prophylactic antibiotics delivered by nebulization in patients who were mechanically ventilated reduced the rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia

HPV Vaccine Linked to Lower Respiratory Papillomatosis Rates

HPV Vaccine Linked to Lower Respiratory Papillomatosis Rates

Incidence of juvenile-onset respiratory papillomatosis declined with the introduction of a HPV vaccination program.

Likelihood of Self-Administered Treatment Completion for Latent TB

Likelihood of Self-Administered Treatment Completion for Latent TB

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The iAdhere study found that once-weekly self-administration of isoniazid and rifapentine had high treatment completion rates in the United States, Hong Kong, Spain, and South Africa.

Zoonotic Potential of <i>C caviae</i> Resulting in Severe CAP Described

Zoonotic Potential of C caviae Resulting in Severe CAP Described

Three cases of community-acquired pneumonia involving Chlamydia caviae after exposure to ill guinea pigs have been described

Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis to Increase in 4 High-Burden Countries

Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis to Increase in 4 High-Burden Countries

Additional strategies to prevent transmission will be necessary to stop multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in countries with a high burden of MDR tuberculosis.

Challenges in Diagnosing Tuberculous Meningitis

Challenges in Diagnosing Tuberculous Meningitis

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Diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis is challenging, although new, next-generation rapid POC testing holds promise for greatly improved sensitivity. Shorter and more effective treatments are needed.

Preterm Infants at Higher Risk for RSV Hospitalization Following 2014 Guidance

Preterm Infants at Higher Risk for RSV Hospitalization Following 2014 Guidance

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New data shows a higher risk of respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization for preterm infants during the 2015-2016 season vs data from the previous season.

Increase in Long-Term Risk of Pneumonia With GERD

Increase in Long-Term Risk of Pneumonia With GERD

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Gastroesophageal reflux disease is associated with long-term risk of pneumonia in a younger population of patients treated with PPIs.

Enteral Gram-Negative Colonization Associated With New ICU Infections

Enteral Gram-Negative Colonization Associated With New ICU Infections

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Researchers concluded that risk of ICU acquired Gram-negative bacteria was low in mechanically ventilated patients receiving selective digestive tract decontamination.

FDA: Priority Review Granted to Expand Indications for Ceftazidime/Avibactam

FDA: Priority Review Granted to Expand Indications for Ceftazidime/Avibactam

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The FDA has granted priority review for Avycaz (ceftazidime/avibactam) to expand the current indications.

Isoniazid-Rifapentine for Latent TB Sees High Completion Rates

Isoniazid-Rifapentine for Latent TB Sees High Completion Rates

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Isoniazid-rifapentine regimen sees high completion rates for latent tuberculosis infection.

Respiratory Infections, Repeat Surgeries Up SSI Risk in Total Joint Arthroplasty

Respiratory Infections, Repeat Surgeries Up SSI Risk in Total Joint Arthroplasty

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Total knee arthroplasty is more commonly linked to surgical site infection compared to total hip arthroplasty.

Metformin Reduces Mortality During Tuberculosis Therapy

Metformin Reduces Mortality During Tuberculosis Therapy

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Researchers assess all-cause mortality during tuberculosis treatment in patients with diabetes, the use of metformin, and effect sputum culture-conversion rates.

Accuracy of Negative Tuberculin Skin Test in Predicting In-Hospital Tuberculosis  Mortality

Accuracy of Negative Tuberculin Skin Test in Predicting In-Hospital Tuberculosis Mortality

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The relationship between negative tuberculin skin test and in-hospital mortality has not been previously studied.

Efficacy of Delafloxacin in Treating Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia

Efficacy of Delafloxacin in Treating Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia

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The efficacy of delafloxacin in treating Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilius influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis isolates was examined.

Risk for TB Infection Predicted by New Scoring System

Risk for TB Infection Predicted by New Scoring System

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This new risk score may guide the identification of high-risk people who would benefit from preventative measures.

Labored Breathing, Hypoxemia May Indicate Pneumonia in Children

Labored Breathing, Hypoxemia May Indicate Pneumonia in Children

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Difficulty breathing and hypoxemia may be a better indication of pneumonia in children.

High-Dose Vitamin D Does Not Prevent Pediatric Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infections

High-Dose Vitamin D Does Not Prevent Pediatric Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infections

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High-dose vitamin D supplements do not prevent viral upper respiratory tract infections in young children.

Increased CVD Risk Persists for Years After Treatment for Sepsis or Pneumonia

Increased CVD Risk Persists for Years After Treatment for Sepsis or Pneumonia

Cardiovascular disease risks persist for years after sepsis or pneumonia.

Influenza Vaccine's Effectiveness Following Repeated Vaccination

Influenza Vaccine's Effectiveness Following Repeated Vaccination

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Influenza vaccination is recommended annually because of antigenic drift, which warrants the change of influenza vaccine on a year-to-year basis.

Microbiome Diversity in Respiratory Tract Linked to Airway Inflammation

Microbiome Diversity in Respiratory Tract Linked to Airway Inflammation

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Lower microbial diversity in the respiratory tract was linked with prophylactic antibiotic use and less airway inflammation in cystic fibrosis.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Treatment Development Discontinued

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Treatment Development Discontinued

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Regeneron discontinued further development of suptavumab for respiratory syncytial virus.

Time to Sputum Culture Conversion Similar in Isoniazid-Resistant and Susceptible TB

Time to Sputum Culture Conversion Similar in Isoniazid-Resistant and Susceptible TB

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A new study examined whether isoniazid resistance was associated with variations in treatment outcomes in patients receiving standard first-line pharmacotherapy for TB.

Guaifenesin/Pseudoephedrine May Reduce Antibiotic Rx for Acute URTI

Guaifenesin/Pseudoephedrine May Reduce Antibiotic Rx for Acute URTI

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A 'wait-and-see' approach may reduce the number of inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions for acute upper respiratory tract infections.

Tuberculosis Detection Could Improve With Conversion Value Change

Tuberculosis Detection Could Improve With Conversion Value Change

A change of QuantiFERON-TB interferon (IFN)γ values could improve tuberculosis detection.

Azithromycin Prevents COPD Exacerbations in <i>H Pylori</i> Seropositive Patients

Azithromycin Prevents COPD Exacerbations in H Pylori Seropositive Patients

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Azithromycin is more likely to reduce exacerbations of COPD among patients with antibodies against Helicobacter pylori.

<i>M tuberculosis</i> Disrupts Regulatory Macrophage Pathways Driving Immunopathology

M tuberculosis Disrupts Regulatory Macrophage Pathways Driving Immunopathology

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis engages the host immune response to drive immunopathology and tissue destruction by disrupting negative regulatory pathways in human macrophages.

Update on Safe, Effective Treatments for Latent Tuberculosis Infection

Update on Safe, Effective Treatments for Latent Tuberculosis Infection

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A recent update of a meta-analysis evaluating treatments for latent tuberculosis infection found that several regimens, including those with a low pill burden and short duration, were safe and effective.

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