Respiratory

Tuberculosis Increases Risk of Osteoporosis, Osteoporotic Fractures

Tuberculosis Increases Risk of Osteoporosis, Osteoporotic Fractures

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Patients with a history of tuberculosis are at risk for developing osteoporosis or osteoporotic fractures.

Tdap Vaccine More Effective in Second Trimester of Pregnancy

Tdap Vaccine More Effective in Second Trimester of Pregnancy

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Maternal vaccination of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) was found to be more effective in the second rather than the third trimester of pregnancy.

Higher Risk of Community-Acquired Pneumonia With Certain T2D Drugs

Higher Risk of Community-Acquired Pneumonia With Certain T2D Drugs

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Patients with type 2 diabetes may be at greater risk of developing community-acquired pneumonia when using thiazolidinediones with metformin compared to treatment with a sulfonylurea and metformin.

Higher Risk of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Certain Populations

Higher Risk of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Certain Populations

Individuals with certain occupations or in certain populations may be more at risk of fatality from hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

Benzodiazepine Use Increases Pneumonia Risk in Alzheimer Disease

Benzodiazepine Use Increases Pneumonia Risk in Alzheimer Disease

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Risk for pneumonia should be considered when weighing the benefits and risks of benzodiazepines in patients with Alzheimer disease.

New Antibiotic Therapy Improves Acute Lung Function in Children With CF

New Antibiotic Therapy Improves Acute Lung Function in Children With CF

New antibiotic therapy is associated with greater likelihood of recovery after acute lung function decline in children with cystic fibrosis.

Treatment of CAP: Phase 3 Results of Novel Tetracycline

Treatment of CAP: Phase 3 Results of Novel Tetracycline

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Paratek announced positive outcomes for their phase 3 trial of omadacycline for treating community-acquired bacterial pneumonia.

Vaccination Reduces Influenza-associated Death in Children and Adolescents

Vaccination Reduces Influenza-associated Death in Children and Adolescents

Vaccination reduces influenza-associated death in children with overall effectiveness of 65%.

Maternal Tdap Vaccination Highly Protective Against Infant Pertussis

Maternal Tdap Vaccination Highly Protective Against Infant Pertussis

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Maternal Tdap vaccination was found to be highly protective against pertussis in newborns.

Pediatric Bronchiolitis Improved With High-Flow Warm Humidified Oxygen

Pediatric Bronchiolitis Improved With High-Flow Warm Humidified Oxygen

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The first RCT of high-flow warm humidified oxygen (HFWHO) compared to low-flow cold cannula oxygen showed HFWHO was safe and more effective when used after failed standard therapy.

Pneumonia Risk in Dementia Increases With Proton Pump Inhibitor Use

Pneumonia Risk in Dementia Increases With Proton Pump Inhibitor Use

Age, male gender, underlying cerebrovascular disease, chronic pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, and usage of antipsychotics were independent risk factors of pneumonia among dementia patients with PPI usage.

High Cardiac Troponin Levels Predict Mortality in CAP

High Cardiac Troponin Levels Predict Mortality in CAP

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Elevated cardiac troponin levels were highly predictive of both in-hospital and long-term mortality in patients admitted for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

Rhinovirus Pneumonia Increases Mortality in Stem Cell Transplant Recipients

Rhinovirus Pneumonia Increases Mortality in Stem Cell Transplant Recipients

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Rhinovirus detection in the lower respiratory tract had high mortality rates comparable to viral pneumonia associated with other well-established respiratory viruses.

Antibiotic Prescribing Habits Vary Widely Across Practices in Children With CAP

Antibiotic Prescribing Habits Vary Widely Across Practices in Children With CAP

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Although published guidelines recommend amoxicillin in most children with community-acquired pneumonia, due to nonclinical factors, macrolides and broad-spectrum antibiotics continue to be prescribed.

Interrupting Transmission of Tuberculosis Key to Containing Global Epidemic

Interrupting Transmission of Tuberculosis Key to Containing Global Epidemic

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Interrupting the transmission of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis is the most important factor in curtailing the epidemic areas of high disease burden.

Decrease in Pneumococcal Bacteremia With Routine PCV13 Vaccine

Decrease in Pneumococcal Bacteremia With Routine PCV13 Vaccine

Researchers observed a 95.3% reduction of S pneumoniae bacteremia after implementation of routine immunization with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

NIH: Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Testing Begins

NIH: Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Testing Begins

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At this time, no vaccine to prevent or drug to treat respiratory syncytial virus infection is available.

Acute Respiratory Infections Reduced in Patients Receiving GERD Treatment

Acute Respiratory Infections Reduced in Patients Receiving GERD Treatment

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First study to examine the benefit of treating GERD with proton pump inhibitors in reducing the acute respiratory infections complications.

Safety and Efficacy of Intravenous Zanamivir in Severe Influenza

Safety and Efficacy of Intravenous Zanamivir in Severe Influenza

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Intravenous zanamivir is as safe and efficacious as oral oseltamivir in hospitalized patients with severe influenza.

Inhaled Corticosteroids Does Not Increase Pneumonia Risk in Children With Asthma

Inhaled Corticosteroids Does Not Increase Pneumonia Risk in Children With Asthma

Inhaled corticosteroids use may not increase risk of pneumonia or other respiratory infections in children with asthma.

Considerable Variation Seen in Risk Assessment for Sepsis in Newborns

Considerable Variation Seen in Risk Assessment for Sepsis in Newborns

The most common factor used to identify risk for early onset sepsis was obstetric diagnosis of chorioamnionitis, according to the study.

FDA Approves Procalcitonin Biomarker Test to Aid Antibiotic Decision Making

FDA Approves Procalcitonin Biomarker Test to Aid Antibiotic Decision Making

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Test uses procalcitonin as a biomarker to help make antibiotic management decisions in patients with lower respiratory tract infections and sepsis.

Macrophages Play a Role in Protecting Alveolar Epithelial Cells Against IAV

Macrophages Play a Role in Protecting Alveolar Epithelial Cells Against IAV

The cysteinyl leukotriene pathway may be a therapeutic target in future research preventing morbidity associated with severe influenza A virus infection.

Acute Respiratory Infections May Be Reduced With Vitamin D Intake

Acute Respiratory Infections May Be Reduced With Vitamin D Intake

Vitamin D supplementation may prevent acute respiratory tract infections, according to a recent study.

CDC Reports on Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness

CDC Reports on Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness

For the predominant circulating influenza A type H3N2 flu strain, the vaccine effectiveness comes in at 43%.

Respiratory Vaccination Reduces Heart Failure Outcomes

Respiratory Vaccination Reduces Heart Failure Outcomes

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Vaccination may be able to prevent significant morbidity and mortality associated with heart failure, according to a study.

NSAIDs Use During Acute Respiratory Infection May Increase Risk of MI

NSAIDs Use During Acute Respiratory Infection May Increase Risk of MI

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According to a new 7-year observational study, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) during acute respiratory infection may significantly increase the risk of heart attack.

Efficacy of Pneumococcal Vaccines for Preventing Pneumonia in COPD

Efficacy of Pneumococcal Vaccines for Preventing Pneumonia in COPD

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A Cochrane review found that polyvalent pneumococcal vaccines offered significant protection against CAP in patients with COPD but did not lower the risk of confirmed pneumococcal pneumonia.

Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Statin Potency and Hospitalization Risk

Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Statin Potency and Hospitalization Risk

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Contrary to previous studies, this study found an increased hospitalization risk for community-acquired pneumonia with higher-potency vs lower-potency statins.

Influenza Activity Picks Up Pace Across US

Influenza Activity Picks Up Pace Across US

The most common strain is H3N2, which is contained in the 2016-2017 influenza vaccine.

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