Experts discuss the management of drug-drug interactions in patients receiving treatment for HIV and HCV coinfection.
All articles by Crystal Wong, MD
Researchers compared the safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir vs pegylated interferon and ribavirin for 12 weeks in patients with thalassemia major and hepatitis C virus genotype 1 or 4.
A new organ dysfunction scoring system that predicts in-hospital mortality was validated in critically ill children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit.
Azithromycin is more likely to reduce exacerbations of COPD among patients with antibodies against Helicobacter pylori.
The World Health Organization published a position paper with updated recommendations on the use of the hepatitis B vaccine regarding target groups, immunization schedules, and storage and distribution.
A recent update of a meta-analysis evaluating treatments for latent tuberculosis infection found that several regimens, including those with a low pill burden and short duration, were safe and effective.
While Mycoplasma genitalium is emerging as one of the most common causes of sexually transmitted infections, and is often underrecognized and treated with ineffective antibiotics.
A newly identified genetic polymorphism was associated with increased rates of mortality and severe clinical outcomes from influenza infection and lower levels of resident lung CD8+ T cells, particularly in individuals of European descent.
Epidemiological data demonstrate a link between HCV infection and cardiovascular disease, whereas treatment studies suggest viral eradication may lower the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
New WHO guidelines address the issue of how to manage pretreatment human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance (HIVDR) in countries where the prevalence of HIVDR is 10% or higher.
The combination of long-acting intramuscular cabotegravir plus rilpivirine was demonstrated to be as effective as 3-drug daily oral ART for maintaining viral suppression of HIV-1 for up to 96 weeks in the LATTE-2 phase 2b study.
An Ebola virus vaccine, rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP, provided 100% protection against Ebola in a prior phase 3 trial. A new study reports long-term safety data and shows that the vaccine induces an antibody response for at least 1 year.
Second- and third-generation fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, and aminoglycosides were shown to decrease the quantity of biofilm produced by Escherichia coli isolates in children with urinary tract infection in an in vitro study.
A study showed that telbivudine administered during early and middle pregnancy prevented transmission of hepatitis B virus infection from mother to infants in all participants receiving antiviral treatment.
A new enhanced technique for urine culture detects over twice as many pathogens as standard urine culture in women with symptoms of urinary tract infection.
Placental malaria during pregnancy may raise the risk of malaria infection in childhood by promoting maternal microchimerism, in which the fetus acquires noninherited maternal cells during pregnancy. Maternal microchimerism may be the mechanism by which the fetus develops tolerance to malaria antigens, leading to an impaired malaria-specific immune response.
Universal vaccination against hepatitis B virus infection prevented non-Hodgkin lymphoma in adolescents in Taiwan, an endemic area for hepatitis B virus infection.
Hepatitis C virus infection may increase the risk for type 2 diabetes, but whether a causal relationship exists is unclear. Screening for type 2 diabetes in this population may have important public health implications.
Preventing the transmission of HIV is central to controlling the HIV epidemic in southern Africa. The PopART intervention program aimed to achieve high rates of universal testing and treatment using community-based health workers to conduct home visits in which they provided services such as HIV testing and referral to ART care.
Narrowing the window for surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis from 60 minutes to 30 minutes before surgery did not improve rates of surgical site infection, reduce 30-day mortality, or shorten hospital lengths of stay.
A new rapid, low-cost test may enable on-site detection of Zika virus in mosquitoes and human blood and semen, allowing for more efficient disease surveillance and diagnosis.
Women with a high hepatitis B viral load who receive tenofovir during pregnancy have a significantly reduced risk for passing on the virus to their child, without an increase in the risk of adverse events.
Patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis are at higher risk for infective endocarditis than the general population and are also likely to have poorer outcomes, such as stroke and death.
Pitavastatin reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a greater extent than pravastatin with a similar safety profile in patients with HIV and dyslipidemia.
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis and Staphylococcus aureus infection have more complications and a higher mortality rate than those without rheumatoid arthritis.
Patients with chronic HCV infection who have achieved a sustained virologic response with treatment are considered cured, but they may still be at risk for complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma. The American Gastroenterological Association Institute addresses these issues in its clinical practice update on managing patients cured of HCV infection.
Statin use decreased rates of decompensation in patients with liver cirrhosis due to HBV and HCV infections and, to a lesser extent, in patients with alcohol-induced cirrhosis. Mortality rates were also reduced in statin users with HBV-related cirrhosis.
Investigations in vitro and in mouse models showed that pentamidine, an antifungal and antiprotozoal agent, rendered Gram-negative pathogens susceptible to conventional antibiotics, even in the setting of colistin resistance.
HCV infection is associated with an increased risk for cataract formation, possibly due to HCV-related oxidative stress. Some treatment regimens, such as interferon/ribavirin combination therapy, also increase the risk for cataracts.
Long-term treatment with tenofovir for hepatitis B virus infection is associated with hypophosphatemia and elevated serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 23, a hormone that induces renal phosphate excretion.
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