Page 6 – Infectious Disease Advisor

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia What every physician needs to know: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a neoplasm involving precursor lymphoblasts committed to either the B-cell or T-cell lineage. ALL is primarily a disease of children, with about 75% of cases occurring in patients under 6 years of age. The incidence of ALL is about 2 per…

Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

Differentiated Thyroid Cancer *The original source for this chapter was Stephanie Lee, MD. The chapter was revised for this program by David Gerber, MD. What every physician needs to know: Differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) of thyroid epithelium account for more than 90% of thyroid cancer. In areas of sufficient iodine nutrition, the prevalence of DTC…

Small cell lung cancer

What every physician needs to know: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive epithelial tumor with neuroendocrine characteristics, which accounts for 15% of all lung cancer diagnoses. SCLC has a rapid doubling time and predilection to metastasize early; approximately two-thirds of patients present with metastatic disease. Treatment should be initiated as soon as possible.…

Cystic Fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis (prenatal screening and diagnosis and care of pregnant women with CF) 1. What every clinician should know Clinical features and incidence Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting in a progressive multisystem disease that affects primarily the pulmonary and digestive systems, but with notable dysfunction of the reproductive, musculoskeletal and biliary…

Headache

Migraine headache 1. What every clinician should know Migraine is a neurologic disorder with attacks that generally will include throbbing pain, activity intolerance, nausea, and light and sound sensitivity. In about 30% of individuals, attacks are preceded by an aura—most commonly visual phenomena that migrate across the visual field. Migraine affects roughly 12% of the…

Seizure disorders

Seizure disorders, epilepsy 1. What every clinician should know Seizures are paroxysmal behavioral spells caused by disorderly discharge of cortical nerve cells and can range from clinically undetectable abnormal patterns on electroencephalography (EEG) to generalized convulsions. Patients are defined as having epilepsy when they experience recurrent or unprovoked seizures, or have brain alterations increasing the…

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) 1. What every clinician should know Clinical features and incidence Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are a heterogeneous group of autoantibodies recognizing epitopes expressed by negatively charged phospholipids, proteins or a phospholipid-protein complex. The true epitope in vivo is unknown. aPL are associated with a variety of medical and obstetric problems. Medical problems include:…

Asthma

Asthma and Pregnancy 1. What every clinician should know Clinical features Asthma is one of the most common potentially serious medical problems that can occur during pregnancy. It is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, with increased airway hyperresponsiveness to a variety of stimuli, and obstruction that is partially or completely reversible. Approximately 8% of pregnant…

Pulmonary Hypertension

Pulmonary Hypertension 1. What every clinician should know Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a serious medical condition that may coexist with pregnancy and cause significant morbidity and mortality. Classically, pregnancy termination has been recommended for women with this disease; however, good outcomes are possible with adequate treatment. Of paramount importance is to correctly identify the subtype…

Myasthenia gravis

Myasthenia Gravis 1. What every clinician should know Clinical features and incidence Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by weakness and decremental response on repetitive use of skeletal muscles. It is caused by the development of auto-antibodies directed against the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the post synaptic portion of the neuromuscular junction. There…

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