Page 8 – Infectious Disease Advisor

Eclampsia

At a Glance Eclampsia is defined as the occurrence of 1 or more generalized convulsions and/or unexplained coma during pregnancy or postpartum in women with signs and symptoms of preeclampsia (hypertension and proteinuria). The reported incidence of eclampsia ranges from 4 to 6 cases per 10,000 pregnancies in developed countries and higher in developing countries.…

Porphyrias

At a Glance The term porphyria refers to a group of disorders in which porphyrins (or their precursors) accumulate in body fluids and tissues. All but one of the porphyrias is hereditary. Each disease is caused by a partial deficiency in one of the enzymes of heme synthesis. With the exception of two very rare…

Myasthenia Gravis

At a Glance The key symptom that suggests myasthenia gravis in patients is abnormal, painless, and fluctuating weakness of the proximal musculature. Small muscles, such as the ocular and oropharyngeal musculature, are typically affected first, resulting in diplopia, ptosis, dysphagia, and dysarthria. Another striking characteristic is the diurnal fluctuation of the weakness, typically most pronounced…

Multiple Sclerosis

At a Glance MS is considered in the presence of clinically objective neurologic deficits and evidence of past events of neurologic symptoms (e.g., in the patient history). The neurologic symptoms themselves are notoriously variable and can come in virtually any form. Typical symptoms include paresthesia, weakness, ataxia, dysarthria, sensory deficits, and impaired or double vision.…

Encephalitis

At a Glance Encephalitis is defined as inflammation of the brain, but, regardless whether the cause is directly infectious or postinfectious, there is commonly concomitant meningitis. In fact, many of the attributes of encephalitis are also seen in cases of meningitis (see Meningitis Module), and encephalitis is considered a progression of meningitis disease in many…

Tuberculosis

At a Glance Tuberculosis is a globally distributed infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. “Tuberculosis” refers specifically to M tuberculosis infections, even though many members of the genus Mycobacterium can cause human disease. Mycobacteria are aerobic, rod-shaped, nonspore forming bacteria containing high concentrations of cell wall lipids/waxes. Mycobacterial cell wall composition is responsible for so-called…

Sickle Cell Anemia

At a Glance Sickle cell anemia, or homozygous hemoglobin S, may be expected in any person with anemia (hemoglobin < 0 g/dL), abnormal peripheral blood findings, a family history of sickle cell trait or sickle cell anemia, and/or a positive newborn screen for sickle cell anemia. The sickle mutation is most commonly found in persons…

Kawasaki Disease

At a Glance Vasculitis is an inflammation of the blood vessel wall. In some cases, the vasculitis may result from immune complex deposition along the vessel wall, leading to a proinflammatory response. Cryoglobulins are antibodies that precipitate from the serum at cold temperatures, then redissolve when the temperature of the serum increases. Cryoglobulins can cause…

Alport Syndrome

At a Glance Alport syndrome is one of the many familial glomerulonephritis (GN). Often, this is seen as a GN (hematuria and proteinuria) in males, but only microscopic hematuria in females (carriers of the genetic risk). It has an age of onset in the late school age to early adolescence but has been identified in…

Renal Disease Associated With Diabetes (Diabetes Nephropathy)

At a Glance Diabetic nephropathy is diagnosed when a patient with established diabetes mellitus has persistent proteinuria. If the glomerular filtration rate is reduced, serum creatinine can be elevated and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or creatinine clearance (CrCl) can be reduced. Patients with type 1 diabetes should be screened for microalbuminuria beginning 5…

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