Jason A. Ramirez

All articles by Jason A. Ramirez


Cholangitis I. What every physician needs to know. Cholangitis is an inflammation of the bile ducts. Types of cholangitis include the following: Acute cholangitis or ascending cholangitis Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC)Continue Reading Secondary sclerosing cholangitis (SSC) Recurrent pyogenic cholangitis (RPC) Ascending cholangitis occurs when bacterial infection is superimposed on bile stasis from impeded bile drainage.…

Barrett's esophagus

Barrett’s Esophagus (BE) is thought to be a complication of longstanding gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). In BE, metaplasia of the distal esophagus’ normal squamous epithelium to columnar-lined intestinal mucosa occurs. Metaplastic changes of BE may be suggested by upper endoscopy, or potentially capsule endoscopy, but confirmation requires biopsy of the columnar-appearing mucosa showing intestinal metaplasia.…

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