John Cras

All articles by John Cras


Hypernatremia I. Problem/Condition. Hypernatremia is defined as a plasma sodium concentration greater than 145 millimoles/liter (mmol/L) and reflects a deficit of water relative to solute. It is always a hyperosmolar state. Continue Reading In normal individuals, regulation of plasma osmolarity is so efficient that sustained hypernatremia will not occur as long as there is adequate…

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