Page 7 – Infectious Disease Advisor

Vaginitis

Vaginitis 1. What every clinician should know Vaginitis is a condition that encompasses a spectrum of vulvovaginal symptoms. This chapter will focus on two of the most common causes of vaginitis. Yeast vaginitis (vulvovaginal candidiasis) is discussed in another chapter. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common type of vaginitis. It is characterized by a…

Central Hypothyroidism – Hypopituitary, Hypothalamic, and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Deficiency

At a Glance Patients with central hypothyroidism have either a failure of the anterior pituitary to secrete TSH (also known as secondary hypothyroidism), failure of the hypothalamus to secrete thyroid releasing hormone (TRH) known as tertiary hypothyroidism, or, in some rare cases, a TSH deficiency with no other findings of pituitary or hypothalamus abnormality. The…

Thyroiditis – Hashimoto's, Post Partum, Sub Acute and Atrophic

At a Glance The thyroid gland produces, secrets, and stores two related hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), which play a critical role in thermogenic and metabolic homeostasis. T4 and T3 are normally synthesized and released in response to a combined hypothalamic pituitary signal mediated by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) from the anterior pituitary and…

Large Intestine, Infectious Diarrhea: Outpatient, Including Traveler’s Diarrhea

At a Glance Diarrhea is suspicious for an infectious etiology. What Tests Should I Request to Confirm My Clinical Dx? In addition, what follow-up tests might be useful? The following tests should be ordered: Stool culture for Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, and Vibrio (may have to order separately) If available, consider multiplex gastrointestinal PCR panel…

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)

At a Glance Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a potentially life-threatening disorder that involves a pathological activation of coagulation system. This clinical syndrome can be triggered by a variety of disorders that lead to the formation of widespread intravascular thrombosis. Depending on the underlying condition, two clinical forms of DIC have been described: acute (decompensated)…

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

At A Glance The features of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (DI) include: polyuria inappropriately dilute urine hypernatremia and hyperosmolality, if water restricted increased plasma vasopressin, despite dilute urine no response to exogenous vasopressin DI is the inability to concentrate urine because of lack of action of vasopressin. DI may be a consequence of vasopressin deficiency (Central…

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)

At a Glance Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) includes a group of autosomal recessive disorders that lead to a deficiency in the steroid synthesis pathway for aldosterone and/or cortisol. The clinical manifestations of CAH are varied and depend, in large part, on the extent of aldosterone or cortisol deficiency. In addition, in some forms of CAH,…

Neuroblastoma

At a Glance Neuroblastoma is a malignant tumor of post ganglionic sympathetic neurons that presents in children, usually before 3 years of age, and is the second most common solid tumor of childhood (after brain tumors). It results in the over production of catecholamines, but hypertension or signs of increased sympathetic activity are uncommon. Most…

Prostate Cancer

At a Glance Prostate cancer should be considered in any male patient older than 40 years of age with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Prostate cancer develops from the prostate, a gland that is part of the male reproductive system, located below the bladder, in front of the rectum, and embracing the urethra. In the…

Vaginitis

At a Glance Trichomoniasis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and bacterial vaginosis comprise 90% of cases of infectious vaginitis or vulvovaginitis. A history of symptoms should include vaginal discharge and odor, mode of onset (abrupt or insidious), vaginal irritation, and abdominal pain. Trichomoniasis is notable for vulvar and vaginal erythema with a purulent, rarely frothy, vaginal discharge. Candida…

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