Indications for Tramadol HCl Ext-Rel Tabs:
Moderate to moderately severe chronic pain when around-the-clock treatment for an extended time is needed.
Swallow whole. Take once daily (allow 24hrs in between doses). Not currently on tramadol: 100mg once daily; may increase every 2–3 days by 100mg/day. Usual range: 200–300mg/day. Currently on immediate-release tramadol: Switch to ext-rel at same daily dose or rounded down to nearest 100mg increment. Max 300mg/day. Withdraw gradually.
<16yrs: not recommended.
Children <12yrs. Post-op management in children <18yrs following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy. Significant respiratory depression. Acute or severe bronchial asthma in an unmonitored setting or in the absence of resuscitative equipment. Known or suspected GI obstruction, including paralytic ileus. During or within 14 days of MAOIs.
Life-threatening respiratory depression; monitor within first 24–72hrs of initiating therapy and following dose increases. Accidental exposure may cause fatal overdose (esp. in children). Risk of life-threatening respiratory depression and death related to ultra-rapid metabolizers of tramadol (esp. in children for post-tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy pain). Avoid in adolescents 12–18yrs with conditions associated with hypoventilation (eg, post-op status, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity, severe pulmonary disease, neuromuscular disease, concomitant drugs that cause respiratory depression). COPD, cor pulmonale, decreased respiratory reserve, hypoxia, hypercapnia, or pre-existing respiratory depression; monitor and consider non-opioid analgesics. Abuse potential (monitor). Adrenal insufficiency. Head injury. Increased intracranial pressure, brain tumors; monitor. Seizure disorders. Avoid in depressed, suicidal, or addiction-prone patients; consider non-narcotic analgesics. Emotional disturbance. CNS depression. Impaired consciousness, coma, shock; avoid. Biliary tract disease. Acute pancreatitis. Drug abusers. Severe hepatic (Child-Pugh Class C) or renal impairment (CrCl<30mL/min): not recommended. Ultra-rapid metabolizers (due to CYP2D6 polymorphism): avoid. Reevaluate periodically. Avoid abrupt cessation. Elderly (esp. >75yrs). Cachectic. Debilitated. Pregnancy; potential neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome during prolonged use. Labor & delivery, nursing mothers: not recommended.
Concomitant other forms of tramadol or carbamazepine: not recommended. Increased risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, sedation with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants (eg, non-benzodiazepine sedatives/hypnotics, anxiolytics, general anesthetics, phenothiazines, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, antipsychotics, alcohol, other opioids); reserve concomitant use in those for whom alternative options are inadequate; limit dosages/durations to minimum required; monitor. Risk of serotonin syndrome with serotonergic drugs (eg, SSRIs, SNRIs, TCAs, triptans, 5-HT3 antagonists, mirtazapine, trazodone, tramadol, MAOIs, linezolid, IV methylene blue); monitor and discontinue if suspected. Increased risk of seizures with SSRIs, SNRIs, anorectics, TCAs, cyclobenzaprine, promethazine, other opioids, MAOIs, naloxone, neuroleptics, and others that lower seizure threshold. Avoid concomitant mixed agonist/antagonist opioids (eg, butorphanol, nalbuphine, pentazocine) or partial agonist (eg, buprenorphine); may reduce effects and precipitate withdrawal symptoms. May be affected by CYP2D6 inhibitors (eg, amiodarone, quinidine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, bupropion). Potentiated by CYP3A4 inhibitors (eg, macrolides, azole antifungals, protease inhibitors). Antagonized by CYP3A4 inducers (eg, rifampin, carbamazepine, phenytoin). May antagonize diuretics; monitor. Paralytic ileus may occur with anticholinergics. Monitor digoxin, warfarin.
GI upset, constipation, dizziness, drowsiness, anorexia, sweating, dry mouth, vertigo, insomnia; anaphylaxis.
Formerly known under the brand name Ryzolt.