Indications for Zidovudine:
HIV-1 infection, in combination with other antiretroviral agents. Prevention of maternal-fetal HIV-1 transmission.
≥18yrs: 300mg twice daily. Renal impairment (CrCl <15mL/min) or on dialysis: 100mg every 6–8hrs. Prevention of maternal-fetal HIV or vertical transmission, severe anemia and/or neutropenia: see full labeling.
<6wks and/or for vertical transmission: see full labeling. 4wks to <18yrs: (4 to <9kg): 24mg/kg/day (12mg/kg twice daily or 8mg/kg 3 times daily); (≥9 to <30kg): 18mg/kg/day (9mg/kg twice daily or 6mg/kg 3 times daily); (≥30kg): 600mg/day (300mg twice daily or 200mg 3 times daily). Alternative dosing based on BSA: 480mg/m2/day (240mg/m2 twice daily or 160mg/m2 3 times daily).
Hematological toxicity. Myopathy. Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis.
Risk of hematologic toxicity/bone marrow suppression; monitor CBCs esp. in advanced HIV-1 disease; interrupt dose if anemia or neutropenia occurs. Myopathy/myositis with prolonged use. Suspend if lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity (eg, hepatomegaly, steatosis) occurs. Monitor for lipoatrophy; use alternatives if suspected. Severe renal impairment: reduce dose (see Adult). Hepatic impairment or cirrhosis: monitor for hematologic toxicity. Latex allergy (IV). Women. Obesity. Elderly. Pregnancy. Nursing mothers: not recommended.
Nucleoside analogue (reverse transcriptase inhibitor).
Avoid concomitant stavudine, doxorubicin, nucleoside analogues (eg, ribavirin). Increased hematologic toxicity with ganciclovir, interferon alpha, ribavirin, other bone marrow suppressants or cytotoxic drugs. Monitor for treatment-associated toxicities (eg, hepatic decompensation) with interferon alpha with or without ribavirin.
Headache, malaise, nausea, vomiting, anorexia; neutropenia, anemia, myopathy, lactic acidosis, severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, immune reconstitution syndrome, pancreatitis, lipoatrophy. Children: also fever, cough.
Formerly known under the brand name Retrovir.
Generic Drug Availability:
Tabs—contact supplier; Caps—100; Syrup—240mL; IV (20mL/vial)—1, 5