Generic antiretroviral agents have had a dramatic effect on outcomes in developing nations, and their availability in developed countries is rapidly expanding as more brand-name drugs are coming off patent. But unique challenges surrounding their use remain.
Although substantial emphasis is placed on vaccinations in considering how to limit the spread of influenza, simple hygienic methods have been found to be the most effective and should be more widely supported.
To meet the goals of the World Health Organization for reducing new infections and decreasing deaths associated with hepatitis B and C virus by 2030, people on the margins of society will need to be tested and treated, including refugees and migrants from endemic regions, as well as people who inject drugs.
The potential role of vaccinations in combatting antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is currently undervalued. The distribution and development of new vaccines should be priorities in efforts to address the AMR crisis.
GBS infections in infants, cellulitis and necrotizing fasciitis, although uncommon in infants, requires swift treatment with antibiotics and occasionally surgical debridement.
The rapidly developing landscape of antiretroviral therapy adherence monitoring has great potential for clinical application, but cost-effectiveness and feasibility studies are needed to define the appropriate roles for these new technologies.
First trimester treatment for malaria could change with the results of 1 of the most robust meta-analyses to date that compared artemisinin-based therapy vs quinine.
The new WHO guidelines restricts antibiotic use in animals for purposes of growth promotion as well as avoidance of use for disease prevention.
Community-acquired pneumonia and other acute infections can cause or exacerbate cardiovascular complications.
Expert perspective on management and treatment of acute urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women.
Prompt diagnosis of tick-borne diseases is essential but testing methods have been imprecise. Learn about some recent testing advances for Lyme disease and other tick-borne illnesses.
As more deaths among individuals living with HIV are not directly associated with communicable diseases, the influence of sex hormones and inflammation on morbidity is coming under scrutiny.
After hospital discharge for sepsis, the healthcare team should focus on identifying new functional, mental, and cognitive impairments and referring patients to appropriate treatment; reviewing and adjusting long-term medications; and evaluating for treatable conditions that commonly result in hospitalizations.
In the past 2 decades, prophylactic antiviral therapies have drastically reduced the rates of HBV recurrence, allograft loss, and mortality in patients undergoing liver transplantation.
Review of subclinical and clinical cardiovascular diseases in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection.
Despite worse outcomes in older adults, treatment efficacy and safety of direct-acting antivirals appear to be similar between older adults and younger patients, based on limited available data. Age should not be considered a barrier to treatment in older HCV-infected adults.
Learn about drugs in the pipeline for treatment-resistant gonorrhea.
The goal of ART in neonates has expanded from reducing morbidity and mortality to the possibility of facilitating remission, but further research is needed to advance this goal, and additional treatment options are also needed for this population.
Experts from the World Health Organization and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in the United Kingdom discuss the imperative to stop viral hepatitis, current diagnostic challenges, and the future of testing.
Dr McKinnell provides a summary of drugs in development for infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, including carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.
Expert from the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, a division of the CDC, discusses prevention strategies for group B streptococcus in infants, including the development of a maternal vaccine.
The availability of low-cost generic DAAs in lower income countries are a major step forward in combating HCV in these countries, but substantial work is still needed to put the WHO's goal of HCV elimination by 2030 within reach.
Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation could provide a safe alternative treatment in HIV-depression by targeting both depression and other comorbidities that can burden people living with HIV.
A dedicated research effort led by NIH's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases is aimed at developing a universal influenza vaccine that would confer better and longer-lasting protection against influenza virus strains.
Experts discusses the potential pitfalls of machine learning algorithms in medicine.
Evaluating conscious vs unconscious decision making in medicine.
Evaluating the effects of computerized decision support systems in medicine.
Evidence of the streetlight effect can be found across several fields, from physics and astronomy, to economics, in which cases investigators draw suspect conclusions from analysis of irrelevant data. Medicine, unsurprisingly, has not been immune, particularly in cancer research.
Differences in life expectancy have widened between wealthy and low-income Americans: the poorest 1% of citizens have a life expectancy 10.1 years and 14.6 years shorter for women and men, respectively, compared with the richest 1%.
Experts discuss the various imaging modalities for children who require diagnostic workup beyond urine culture, as well as the consequences of overusing antibiotics and antibiotic route of administration.
Chest X-rays do not differentiate between viral and bacterial pathogens, and they do not subsequently alter the course of treatment.
Experts discuss the management of drug-drug interactions in patients receiving treatment for HIV and HCV coinfection.
Although a positive impact on behavior change has been reported following the implementation of curriculum-based programs, there is a lack of clear evidence that school-based educational interventions directly prevent HIV/STIs.
Vaccination may confer modest reductions in acute otitis media (AOM) and AOM-targeted antibiotic use but use of influenza vaccine as a strategy to reduce AOM is likely unjustified.
Women with HIV have an increased risk for persistent HPV infection, which frequently progresses to cervical cancer, and they should be warned of their increased risk for HPV and cervical cancer and, when appropriate, advised to undergo HPV vaccination.
Without proactive measures and response, the changing climate is projected to continue to adversely affect the global incidence and distribution of infectious diseases and cause 250,000 additional deaths per year between 2030 and 2050.
MicroRNAs are currently under investigation for various clinical applications in infectious disease because of their role in host response to infection and effects on innate and adaptive immune pathways.
Dr Gianella Weibel talks with Dr Li and Dr Dubé, investigators of a new study from the AIDS Clinical Trials Group, which uses an intensively monitored antiretroviral pause to identify changes in HIV reservoirs after anti-HIV medications are stopped.
Study was the first to examine the geographical variation of seminal HPV prevalence, showing a relatively high prevalence in fertility clinic attendees when compared to the general population.
Educational campaigns regarding the value of vaccines should go beyond facts and statistics to integrating social psychological considerations with health communication principles.
The FDA has granted Fast Track designation to Visterra's lead product, VIS410.
The opioid epidemic has fueled the transmission of HCV, particularly among younger persons, who are often unaware of their risks and prevented from receiving timely treatment due to a variety of care barriers, even in settings ideally suited to identifying and treating HCV.
A representative from the California Department of Public Health discusses latent TB infection testing and treatment recommendations and reasons why US physicians have been slow to test for and treat for the condition.
The 2017 revisions to the Common Rule deal largely with improving the transparency and clarity of intended uses under the current standard of informed consent, while introducing a new concept of "broad consent."
Racial disparities in HCV treatment outcomes can be partially explained by the differences in underlying immune/genetic characteristics of patients.
Experts discuss antibiotic classes in development, which agents holds the most promise, and how to prevent further resistance.
Use of incentives makes the most sense with disadvantaged populations including homeless, drug users, and people in developing countries.
There is no cure or even effective antiviral therapy for yellow fever. Vaccination remains the sole route for preventing mortality from the disease, and WHO projections have already pointed to a significant global shortage.
Diagnosing Lyme disease can be difficult because symptoms vary from one person to another and can resemble symptoms of other infectious diseases spread by ticks.
Mortality rates associated with infective endocarditis range from 16% to 25%, with the highest rates observed among patients with nosocomial healthcare-associated infective endocarditis.
First-hand accounts of the care that was delivered during the 2013-16 West African outbreak of Ebola virus disease provided impetus for these guidelines.
Diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis is challenging, although new, next-generation rapid POC testing holds promise for greatly improved sensitivity. Shorter and more effective treatments are needed.
The Infectious Diseases Society of America updated its guidelines for the management of acute or persistent infectious diarrhea.
The high cost of DAA-based regimens remains an ethical issue and an obstacle to treatment accessibility. Shorter treatment regimens may offer substantial cost savings, improved treatment adherence, and a reduced rate of side effects.
Once-daily regimens have been shown to improve adherence to treatment with no adverse effect on outcomes in patients with HIV.
Data have shown patients with genotype 3 HCV have faster progression of fibrosis and higher rates of cirrhosis, severe steatosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma.
Investigators review results from the first study to assess the efficacy of a Vi-conjugate vaccine using a controlled human infection model of typhoid fever.
In recent years, a link between childhood Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer in adulthood has elevated the need to detect and treat H pylori in asymptomatic children.
Vaginal microbiota dominated by L iners has been shown to exhibit rapid change in composition in and out of community states similar to bacterial vaginosis.
Optimizing outcomes with an antibiotic stewardship programs requires a team approach that involves point-of-care providers.
Physicians can help avoid contributing to antibiotic resistance by recognizing and using appropriate alternative treatments, and having a strategy so that patients are not on antibiotics for a long period of time.
The incidence of neurocognitive impairment is high in HIV-infected population, despite the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART).
Despite continual efforts aimed at finding new treatment options, HCC still has a very low 5-year survival rate, less than 20%, as many patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage of the disease.
Incidence of adverse events with delafloxacin (Baxdela™, Melinta Therapeutics) was comparable to the combination regimen of vancomycin plus aztreonam across 2 phase 3 registrational ABSSSI studies.
An international panel of experts applied the GRADE system and choose 7 PICO questions to generate recommendations for HAP/VAP.
Learn more about when stopping antiretroviral therapy (ART) may be necessary, why patients discontinue ART, predicting viral suppression, and predicting and encouraging adherence.
Increase use of evidence-based care processes decreased mortality associated with S aureus bacteremia in VHA hospitals.
New data confirms delafloxacin shows high response rates against MRSA.
A 3-part strategy was announced to combat the hepatitis A outbreak in San Diego, California.
In addition to prevention measures, switching off the ARTs associated with bone loss and administering intravenous bisphosphonate, a bone resorption inhibitor, can be an effective strategy for preventing bone loss seen in HIV-infected individuals.
How can hospitals protect themselves against recent ransomware attacks?
One of the main challenges in managing and controlling hepatitis B infection today is identifying people who are infected and ensuring that they have access to suitable treatment.
An analysis on the cost saving success of accountable care organizations.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis engages the host immune response to drive immunopathology and tissue destruction by disrupting negative regulatory pathways in human macrophages.
Follow-up blood cultures may have little utility in the management of Gram-negative bacilli bacteremia, according to data from a recent study.
The CDC Health Alert Network has issued an advisory regarding an increase in cases of the intestinal illness cyclosporiasis.
While Mycoplasma genitalium is emerging as one of the most common causes of sexually transmitted infections, and is often underrecognized and treated with ineffective antibiotics.
A tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (TDV) was found to be safe and immunogenic in an ongoing phase 2 trial. A second TDV dose induced enhanced immunogenicity against DENV-3 and DENV-4 in children who were seronegative before vaccination, supporting the initiation of phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of TDV given in a 2-dose schedule 3 months apart.
Experts review biotherapeutics for the prevention of C difficile infection, including probiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, and nontoxigenic C difficile.
Epidemiological data demonstrate a link between HCV infection and cardiovascular disease, whereas treatment studies suggest viral eradication may lower the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Diagnosis is one of the primary difficulties in managing hospital acquired pneumonia.
Patients with HCV are at risk for several extrahepatic sequelae. Find out what they are and the new treatment options for managing HCV in patients with rheumatic symptoms.
Cytomeglovirus infection is associated with a range of diagnostic and treatment challenges and a relatively high transmission rate from the mother to the fetus.
Several technological advances have been developed to improve adherence to antiretroviral and preexposure prophylaxis therapy.
The risk for infection and malignancy associated with biologic use complicates the management of patients with a deficient immune system. Equip yourself with the information needed to effectively manage these complex patients.
Rapid treatment of sepsis using mandated care bundles improves outcomes.
An expert interview on recent developments in molecular point-of-care and near-patient testing for infectious diseases.
In an effort to combat extensive drug-resistance in gonorrhea, a new assay identifies patients who may still have a response to an older, less reliable therapy.
An imbalance in gut microbiota may be associated with the progression of Parkinson's disease.
Dr Sara Gianella Weibel talks with Anthony B, a patient with HIV and end-stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and the first participant enrolled in the "Last Gift" end-of-life study, about his experience as part of this new end-of-life model to study HIV persistence.
Dr Sara Gianella Weibel talks with Jeff Taylor, community activist and long-term HIV survivor, about a new end-of-life model to study HIV persistence.
Dr Sara Gianella Weibel talks with Dr Davey Smith, head of the Division of Infectious Disease at the University of California, San Diego, about a proposed new model to study HIV persistence, called the Last Gift study.
Experts review novel antibiotic therapies that may limit the impact on the gut microbiome, as well as passive immunization products that may bolster the immune response to C difficile toxins and possibly reduce the frequency of toxigenic strains.
Hepatitis C virus infection may increase the risk for type 2 diabetes, but whether a causal relationship exists is unclear. Screening for type 2 diabetes in this population may have important public health implications.
Medical liability remains a troubling issue today, placing a burden on patients and a financial burden of medical practitioners and insurance providers.
Study finds that over one-fifth of those prescribed an antibiotic for community-acquired pneumonia experience treatment failure.
Dr Sara Gianella talks with Brooke Sullivan, a transgender woman and HIV activist, about ways to improve transgender individuals' involvement in HIV research.
Dr Sara Gianella talks with Dr Sheldon Morris, from the University of California San Diego AntiViral Research Center about an upcoming PrEP study in transgender people, including understanding HIV prevention in this population, uptake of PrEP, and adherence to treatment.
Passage of the 2017 budget, along with congressional approval of the AHCA, leaves large holes in the funding of the proposed national approach to infectious disease control.
Mother-to-child HIV transmission rates are low in the presence of antiretroviral therapy but increase once ART stops at 6 months postpartum.
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Infectious Disease Advisor Articles
- Generic HIV Medicines: Boon or Bust?
- Insulin-Treated Diabetes Reduces Dysglycemia-Related Mortality in Sepsis
- It Costs $2.2 Billion a Year to Treat Antibiotic Resistance
- Pregnancy May Be Independently Associated With Prolonged Detection of Zika Virus RNA
- Tricyclic Antidepressants May Reduce Cirrhosis Risk in Hepatitis C
- Clostridium difficile Infection in the Intensive Care Setting
- Combating Medically Important Antibiotic Use in Food-Producing Animals
- Religious Exemptions vs Mandatory Vaccinations: An Expert Perspective
- 2018 Vaccination Schedule: Adults
- Fingerstick Point-of-Care Test Allows for Single-Visit HCV Diagnoses
- Glecaprevir/Pibrentasvir Highly Efficacious for HCV/HIV Coinfection
- Fluoroquinolone Use May Increase Risk for Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection
- Reduced Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in DAA-Treated HCV Infection
- Paracetamol Overuse During Cold and Flu Season
- C difficile Risk Higher With Stoma Reversal vs Colectomy