Effect of Different Polio Immunization Programs on Hepatitis A, B Vaccine Efficacy

Fake hepatitis B vaccine vial with syringe and stethoscope at the background
Researchers assessed the effects of different sequential polio immunization programs on the efficacy of hepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus vaccines.

Different types of sequential polio immunization programs were found to have no effect on the efficacy of vaccines for Hepatitis A virus (HAV) or Hepatitis B virus (HBV), according to study findings published in Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics.

Healthy infants (N=968) from China were enrolled in this randomized, double-blinded, single-center, parallel arm trial that assessed the effects of 6 different sequential polio immunization programs on the efficacy of HAV and HBV vaccines. Participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 fashion into 6 vaccine groups and underwent vaccination with 6 different combinations of inactivated and oral vaccines. Participants received the polio vaccines at 2, 3, and 4 months of age; the HBV vaccines at zero, 1, and 6 months of age; and the HAV live-attenuated vaccine at 18 months of age. The researchers assessed HAV and HBV vaccine efficacy via anti-HAV antibody measurements and HBV surface antibody (HBsAb) measurements, respectively.

No significant between-group differences in anti-HAV antibody measurements were observed among the participants. Prior to polio vaccination and at 28 days after primary polio vaccination, positivity rates for anti-HAV antibodies ranged between 74.07% and 78.05% and between 71.34% and 78.57%, respectively. Positivity rates for anti-HAV antibodies were most increased for all participants at 24 months of age, ranging between 98.05% and 100%.

Results were similar for HBsAB measurements among all participants, with no significant between-group differences in HBsAB positivity rates observed prior to polio vaccination (range, 93.90%-97.53%), nor at 28 days after primary polio vaccination (range, 98.70%-100%) or at 24 months of age (range, 84.28%-88.31%).

These findings may have limited generalizability due to the single-center study design, and HAV and HBV vaccines produced by different manufacturers may show different results.

According to the researchers, “[these] results may be helpful for the prepation of combined polio and [HAV] or [HBV] vaccination strategies.”

Reference

Chen S, Zhao Y, Yang Z, et al. The impact of different IPV-OPV sequential immunization programs on hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccine efficacy. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2022;18(1):2024063. doi:10.1080/21645515.2021.2024063