Topical gentamicin is superior to mupirocin for prophylaxis against gram-negative bacterial infections among patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD), according to a new systematic review and meta-analysis.
Mupirocin, a polyketide antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens, is the current standard of care in most centers and has proven effective against gram-positive organisms. There has been a recent rise in gram-negative infections, however.
“In our opinion, gentamicin cream may be a better option for centers with a relatively high incidence of gram-negative exit-site infection or peritonitis,” Shih-Ping Cheng, MD, PhD, of Mackay Medical College in Taiwan, and colleagues wrote in a paper published online ahead of print in the American Journal of Surgery. Gram-negative infections may follow touch contamination, such as from a bowel source. Peritonitis from gram-negative bacteria often leads to hospitalization, catheter loss, and failure of PD, according to background information in the paper.
The investigators assessed the risk of exit-site infections in a meta-analysis of 7 studies involving 458 patients treated with mupirocin and 448 treated with gentamicin. They found that the risk of exit-site infections from gram-positive organisms was similar between groups. Gram-negative exit-site infections, however, occurred at a higher rate among mupirocin patients. Patient age averaged in the 50s.
The investigators found no difference in the gram-positive and gram-negative peritonitis rate based on an analysis of 6 studies involving 397 mupirocin and 388 gentamicin patients. Peritonitis can arise after an exit-site infection. One episode of peritonitis might occur normally every 18 months (or 0.67 episodes per year), according to the researchers.
“Gentamicin may also be considered for those with a high incidence of exit-site infections caused by gram-positive organisms other than S aureus,” Dr Cheng and the team added. “Conversely, mupirocin is more favorable when the institutional incidence and prevalence rates of S aureus infections are high.”
Tsai CC, Yang PS, Liu CL, et al. Comparison of topical mupirocin and gentamicin in the prevention of peritoneal dialysis-related infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis [published online March 16, 2017]. Am J Surg. doi: 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2017.03.005
This article originally appeared on Renal and Urology News