Updated on 4/29

While no specific treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently available, several therapies are being investigated globally.*   


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Altimmune Inc: developing a single-dose, intranasal vaccine against COVID-19 using its proprietary NasoVAX technology. The vaccine is moving toward animal testing. 

Applied DNA Sciences: collaborating with Takis Biotech to develop a DNA vaccine candidate using PCR-based DNA (“LinearDNA”) manufacturing systems; preclinical testing in animals is expected to begin in the second quarter of 2020.

Codagenix Inc: co-developing a live-attenuated vaccine with the Serum Institute of India using viral deoptimization.

GlaxoSmithKline: collaborating with Clover Biopharmaceuticals to develop a protein-based coronavirus vaccine candidate (COVID-19 S-Trimer) using Clover’s proprietary technology (Timer-Tag©) and combining it with GSK’s pandemic adjuvant system.

Inovio Pharmaceuticals: developing a DNA vaccine (INO-4800) to address COVID-19; human trials to begin in the US in April.

Johnson & Johnson: partnering with the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) to develop a vaccine using Janssen’s AdVac® and PER.C6® technology, which provide the ability to rapidly upscale production of an optimal vaccine candidate.

Moderna Inc: vials of the Company’s mRNA vaccine (mRNA-1273) have been shipped to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to be used in a phase 1 study in the US. 

Novavax: currently evaluating multiple recombinant nanoparticle vaccine candidates in animal models; initiation of phase 1 testing is expected in late spring of 2020. The COVID-19 vaccine candidates will likely include the saponin-based Matrix-M™ adjuvant to enhance immune responses.

Pfizer and BioNTech: co-developing a potential first-in-class COVID-19 mRNA-based vaccine candidate (BNT162), which is expected to enter clinical testing by the end of April 2020. 

Sanofi: collaborating with BARDA to develop a vaccine using Sanofi’s recombinant DNA platform. The DNA sequence encoding the antigen will be combined into the DNA of the baculovirus expression platform and used to produce large quantities of the coronavirus antigen which will be formulated to stimulate the immune system to protect against the virus.

Sanofi and GlaxoSmithKline: the Companies are collaborating on an adjuvanted vaccine using Sanofi’s S-protein COVID-19 antigen and GSK’s pandemic adjuvant technology. A candidate vaccine is expected to enter clinical trials in the second half of 2020, and if successful, may be available by the second half of 2021.

Sorrento Therapeutics: developing STI-6991, an I-CellTM COVID-19 cellular vaccine made of replication-deficient human erythroleukemia K562 cells expressing membrane-bound S1 protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The I-Cell vaccine is expected to elicit both T cell and B cell immunities against SARS-CoV-2.

*Not an inclusive list. Updates will be made as more information becomes available.

This article originally appeared on MPR