HealthDay News — Previous antibiotic exposure and use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may be risk factors for Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) in hospitalized pediatric patients, according to a review published online March 7 in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology.

Scott Anjewierden, from Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, and colleagues conducted a systematic literature review of studies evaluating risk factors for CDI in hospitalized pediatric patients.

Based on 14 included studies with 10,531,669 children, the researchers found that previous antibiotic exposure (odds ratio [OR], 2.14) and PPI use (OR, 1.33) were associated with an increased risk for CDI in children. When the investigators analyzed studies reporting only adjusted results, however, previous antibiotic exposure did not appear to be a significant risk factor for CDI. Neither H2 receptor antagonist use nor female gender was a significant risk factor for developing CDI.

“Judicious and appropriate use of antibiotics and PPIs may help reduce the risk of CDI in this vulnerable population,” the authors write.

One author disclosed ties to 3M, Clorox, and STERIS.

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