Researchers plan to conduct a systematic review to determine the factors that contribute to pneumonia in neonates in India, according to the recent protocol for the first systematic review and meta-analysis of its kind published in BMJ Open.
To evaluate the risk factors for pneumonia among neonates in India, the researchers planned to search 9 databases, including regional databases and websites, for both published and so-called grey literature. Observational, case-control, cross-sectional, and analytical cross-sectional studies will be included. Interventional studies, meta-analyses, reviews, editorials, and qualitative research will be excluded.
The authors suggested that examples of possible risk factors for neonatal pneumonia included patient-related factors (eg, age, sex, low birth weight), parent-related factors (eg, sociodemographic, economic), maternal or pregnancy-related factors (eg, gestational age, urinary tract infections), environment-related factors (eg, place of residence, overcrowding), health-system related causes, or iatrogenic causes.
A random effects meta-analysis will be performed on the collective data. Subgroup analyses may be performed on the basis of study design, setting, or type of neonatal pneumonia.
According to the authors, more neonatal deaths occur in India than in any other country, and a high percentage of neonatal mortality is attributed to infectious disease.
The researchers explained that “consolidated evidence on the factors responsible for the Indian burden of neonatal pneumonia is greatly lacking and urgently required. With this study, we propose to identify various risk factors and determinants associated with neonatal pneumonia, in order to better understand, identify and eliminate these risk factors and determinants, and thus reduce the disease burden of neonatal pneumonia in India.”
Nair S, Lewis LE, Godinho MA, Murthy S, Lakiang T, Venkatesh BT. Factors associated with neonatal pneumonia in India: protocol for a systematic review and planned meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2018;8:e018790.