Further investigation into new strategies to prevent herpes simplex virus (HSV) acquisition in pregnant women and to prevent HSV transmission from mother to neonate are warranted.
The number of adverse birth outcomes was not higher with tenofovir, emtricitabine, and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir than with zidovudine, lamivudine, and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir or tenofovir, emtricitabine, and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir in HIV-infected women and their infants in the United States.
In-utero exposure to tenofovir-emtricitabine not associated with higher risk of adverse birth outcomesMay 01, 2018
Pairwise comparisons of tenofovir-emtricitabine and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (TDF-FTC-LPV/r), zidovudine-lamivudine and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (ZDV-3TC-LPV/r), and tenofovir-emtricitabine and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (TDF-FTC-ATV/r) HIV regimens among pregnant women with HIV showed all 3 regimens had comparable risks of preterm birth, low birth weight, and neonatal death.
This updated Committee Opinion includes more recent data on the safety and efficacy of influenza vaccination during pregnancy, as well as recommendations for treatment and postexposure chemoprophylaxis.
About half of pregnant women with HIV infection underwent cesarean delivery between 1998 and 2013.
Findings provide an alternative explanation for virus acquisition and shedding in seroimumne pregnant women that contrasts with proposed mechanisms that argue that reactivation of persistent infection in seroimmune women leads to infection and virus shedding.
Women in the United States with uncomplicated malaria during the first trimester of pregnancy should be treated with the currently recommended options of either mefloquine or quinine plus clindamycin. However, when neither of these options is available, artemether-lumefantrine should be considered for treatment.
Researchers assessed the differential risk of acquiring HIV-1 infection across reproductive stages by calculating per-coital-act risk for each stage and comparing with nonpregnant times.
Researchers estimated this risk among pregnant women with symptomatic Zika virus infection in French territories in the Americas.
Hepatitis B e-antigen positive mothers receiving tenofovir daily from 28-weeks gestation to 2 months postpartum did not show significant reductions in HBV transmission rates compared to placebo treated participants.
Maternal receipt of influenza and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and Tdap vaccines is not associated with infant hospitalization or death.
No significant association was identified between maternal intrapartum vaccination with the influenza or tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine and infant hospitalization or mortality.
A chlamydia infection that has been identified during pregnancy and treated does not appear to result in a substantial increase in the risk of preterm birth compared with the risk in women tested and shown to not have a chlamydia infection.
For pregnant women in their first trimester, a 2011 Committee Opinion from the ACOG recommended that sulfonamides and nitrofurantoin may be prescribed only if other antimicrobial therapies are deemed clinically inappropriate.
Further research on longer-term effects of maternal prenatal TDF use is important given the majority of HIV-infected women are prescribed a TDF-containing prevention of mother-to-child transmission regimen.
The recommendations will be published in the November issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
The GRADE framework recommendations provide guidance for combination treatment regimens based on 2 systemic reviews, patient considerations, fetal outcomes, and practical issues.
Pregnant women who received vaccines containing the pH1N1 antigen for 2 consecutive influenza seasons may have increased risk for spontaneous abortion 28 days postvaccination.
Inadvertent administration of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine during periconception or pregnancy was not associated with additional risk to mothers and their infants.
Women achieving HIV viral suppression in pregnancy can experience viral load rebound predelivery.
The use of specific antibiotics during pregnancy may be associated with increased risk for major congenital malformations.
Prior influenza vaccination predicts higher baseline antibody titers and decreased peak antibody responses against all influenza strains in pregnant women.
Influenza vaccination during pregnancy decreases infant hospitalizations for all-cause acute lower respiratory tract infection during the first 3 months of life.
Cytomeglovirus infection is associated with a range of diagnostic and treatment challenges and a relatively high transmission rate from the mother to the fetus.
A study showed that telbivudine administered during early and middle pregnancy prevented transmission of hepatitis B virus infection from mother to infants in all participants receiving antiviral treatment.
Zika infection can be ruled out or confirmed by testing fetal and placental tissue according to a study published in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Epidemiological study finds reassuring outcomes for Brazilian babies born to mothers with symptomatic dengue during pregnancy.
About 1 in 20 women in the US territories who were infected with Zika during pregnancy had babies with possible Zika-associated birth defects.
Placental malaria during pregnancy may raise the risk of malaria infection in childhood by promoting maternal microchimerism, in which the fetus acquires noninherited maternal cells during pregnancy. Maternal microchimerism may be the mechanism by which the fetus develops tolerance to malaria antigens, leading to an impaired malaria-specific immune response.
Most opioid-dependent pregnant patients understand that intravenous drug use is a major transmission modality of hepatitis C virus.
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Infectious Disease Advisor Articles
- Clinicians Warn That Zika Virus May Still Be an Area of Concern for Travelers
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- Effect of Dengue Serostatus on Dengue Vaccine Safety and Efficacy
- Inappropriate Prescribing of Antibiotics High in Urgent Care Centers
- Universal Purchase Programs in the United States May Not Effectively Increase Vaccination Rates
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- Delays in Lactate Testing Associated With Delayed Antibiotics, Increased Mortality in Sepsis
- Prognostic Biomarkers to Guide Antibiotic Therapy in Critically Ill Patients
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- Factors Increasing Risk for Hemorrhagic Stroke After Infective Endocarditis
- Salmonella Outbreak Linked to Hy-Vee Spring Pasta Salad
- Harms Reporting Limited in Trials of Prebiotics, Probiotics, Synbiotics
- Trials Supporting FDA Approval of Breakthrough Drugs Examined
- Etravirine Indication Expanded to Include Younger HIV Patients