Prevention

Amoxicillin-Clavulanate Vs Azithromycin for Children With Bronchiectasis

Amoxicillin-Clavulanate Vs Azithromycin for Children With Bronchiectasis

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Azithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanate are equally effective for resolving nonsevere bronchiectasis in children.

Gentamicin Not Linked to Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with Bacteremia

Gentamicin Not Linked to Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with Bacteremia

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Short course gentamicin therapy in patients with bacteremia was not associated with an increased incidence of acute kidney injury.

Antibiotic-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Tied to Clinical Failure in UTI

Antibiotic-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Tied to Clinical Failure in UTI

Poor clinical outcomes linked to extended spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

HBV Treatment Evaluation, Initiation Rates Compared Among Various Practice Settings

HBV Treatment Evaluation, Initiation Rates Compared Among Various Practice Settings

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The aim of the study was to assess both treatment evaluation and treatment initiation rates from various practice settings between January 2002 and December 2016.

CDC Director Says Congo Ebola Outbreak May Be Uncontainable

CDC Director Says Congo Ebola Outbreak May Be Uncontainable

It may not be possible to bring the Ebola outbreak in Congo under control, and the deadly disease may become entrenched in the northeastern part of the country.

Stratifying by Severity May Allow Shorter TB Tx Regimens

Stratifying by Severity May Allow Shorter TB Tx Regimens

Stratifying tuberculosis patients by disease severity may enable shorter treatment regimens.

Large Numbers of Negative Trial Results Impede Progress in Critical Care Medicine

Large Numbers of Negative Trial Results Impede Progress in Critical Care Medicine

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Excessive numbers of negative clinical trials — many of which may be false-negative trials — are a major impediment to the advancement of critical care medicine.

Labeling for Two HIV Drugs Updated With Safety, PK Data for Pregnant Patients

Labeling for Two HIV Drugs Updated With Safety, PK Data for Pregnant Patients

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The "8.1 Pregnancy" and "12.3 Pharmacokinetics" sections have been updated with data showing no increase in the risk of overall major birth defects with 1st trimester exposure for rilpivirine.

CDC Updates Recommendations for Hepatitis A Vaccination for International Travel

CDC Updates Recommendations for Hepatitis A Vaccination for International Travel

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The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Hepatitis Vaccines Work Group updated recommendations for the use of hepatitis A vaccine for PEP and PrEP.

Dengue Vaccine Candidate Gets FDA's Priority Review

Dengue Vaccine Candidate Gets FDA's Priority Review

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Two Phase 3 trials conducted in Asia and Latin America assessed the efficacy of the vaccine in >35,000 individuals aged 2 to 16 years.

ART Initiated Pre-Pregnancy Lowers Hospitalization due to Infection in HIV-Exposed Infants

ART Initiated Pre-Pregnancy Lowers Hospitalization due to Infection in HIV-Exposed Infants

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ART prior to becoming pregnant was linked with reduced risk for hospitalization because of infections in seronegative infants who are exposed to HIV.

Low Levels of Flu Reported in U.S. From May to October

Low Levels of Flu Reported in U.S. From May to October

Seasonal influenza activity was also found to be low in the Southern Hemisphere.

Earlier Intervention May Have Lessened HIV Outbreak in Indiana

Earlier Intervention May Have Lessened HIV Outbreak in Indiana

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Ensuring access to HIV services and harm-reduction interventions earlier could substantially reduce HIV incidence over the course of an actual outbreak.

Dengue Detection and Preparedness Plan for 2020 Olympic Games in Tokyo

Dengue Detection and Preparedness Plan for 2020 Olympic Games in Tokyo

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The failure mode and effect analysis methodology may facilitate protocols for new control that would benefit dengue detection and assessment for the 2020 Olympics.

Antibiotics, Acid Suppressants in Infancy May Up Obesity Risk

Antibiotics, Acid Suppressants in Infancy May Up Obesity Risk

Prescription of antibiotics, acid-suppressing meds in first two years of life linked to childhood obesity.

Hepatotoxicity Risk Associated With Anidulafungin, Caspofungin, and Micafungin

Hepatotoxicity Risk Associated With Anidulafungin, Caspofungin, and Micafungin

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Anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin have shown similar risk profiles for severe hepatotoxicity.

Social Medicine: The Effect of Social Media on the Anti-Vaccine Movement

Social Medicine: The Effect of Social Media on the Anti-Vaccine Movement

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The anti-vaccine movement has proliferated over recent years, thanks in part to its most vocal proponents using social media to churn out often misleading information.

Tdap Vaccine Can Be Administered as a Decennial Booster Dose

Tdap Vaccine Can Be Administered as a Decennial Booster Dose

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A second dose of Tdap, a reduced-antigen-content tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine, 9 years after initial vaccination was well tolerated and immunogenic.

Low Risk for Recurrent Mild Adverse Events After Reimmunization

Low Risk for Recurrent Mild Adverse Events After Reimmunization

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An adverse event after immunization may not reoccur with future immunizations, unless the initial reaction was severe.

Optimal Pertussis Toxin Antibodies Achieved With Third Trimester Tdap Vaccination

Optimal Pertussis Toxin Antibodies Achieved With Third Trimester Tdap Vaccination

Immunization with Tdap vaccine during the third trimester of pregnancy resulted in higher concentrations of pertussis toxin antibodies in newborns.

Pneumococcal Vaccine Recommendations Cause Confusion Among Physicians

Pneumococcal Vaccine Recommendations Cause Confusion Among Physicians

While primary care physicians overwhelmingly recommend pneumococcal vaccines, there is a gap in their knowledge of how to implement related vaccine recommendations.

Two New Typhoid Vaccines Show Efficacy in Reducing Rates of Stool Shedding

Two New Typhoid Vaccines Show Efficacy in Reducing Rates of Stool Shedding

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Shedding of Salmonella Typhi or Paratyphi in the stool/urine leads to contamination of food/water, but vaccines can reduce stool shedding.

Infant HIV Infection Ups Risk for Congenital CMV Infection

Infant HIV Infection Ups Risk for Congenital CMV Infection

HIV-exposed infants have high rates of congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection, and in utero HIV infection seems to be a major risk factor for cCMV.

Prehospital Advanced Life Support Shortens Antibiotic Wait Times in Sepsis

Prehospital Advanced Life Support Shortens Antibiotic Wait Times in Sepsis

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Antibiotic treatment started sooner in individuals with sepsis treated with advanced life support who did not have hypotension.

High-Dose Flu Vaccine May Cut Hospitalization in Dialysis Patients

High-Dose Flu Vaccine May Cut Hospitalization in Dialysis Patients

Significant reduction seen in hospitalization with receipt of high-dose versus standard-dose vaccine.

Advance Care Planning Lowers Symptoms in Teens With HIV

Advance Care Planning Lowers Symptoms in Teens With HIV

Family-centered pediatric advance care planning may result in fewer symptoms, less suffering.

470 Percent Increase in HIV PrEP Use in US, 2014 to 2016

470 Percent Increase in HIV PrEP Use in US, 2014 to 2016

From 2014 to 2016 there was an increase in the annual number of HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) users in the United States.

Variable Period of Risk for Myocardial Infarction and Stroke Following Sepsis

Variable Period of Risk for Myocardial Infarction and Stroke Following Sepsis

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Patients recovering from sepsis had an elevated risk for myocardial infarction or stroke in the first 4 weeks after hospital discharge compared to the general population.

Local Gentamicin Application Ineffective in Treatment of Periprosthetic Joint Infection

Local Gentamicin Application Ineffective in Treatment of Periprosthetic Joint Infection

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The use of gentamicin-impregnated beads and/or sponges should be discouraged in early acute periprosthetic joint infection as their use is associated with high failure rates.

New Data Suggests Change in Daptomycin Breakpoint for Enterococcal Bacteremia

New Data Suggests Change in Daptomycin Breakpoint for Enterococcal Bacteremia

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A ratio of free drug area under the concentration-time curve to MIC for daptomycin was linked with an higher 30-day survival in some with bacteremia.

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