Preventive Medicine

Educational Intervention Improves HPV Vaccination

Educational Intervention Improves HPV Vaccination

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Educational interventions delivered in a clinical setting may improve vaccination behaviors.

Bexsero Vaccine Has Potential for Cross-Protection Against Gonorrhea

Bexsero Vaccine Has Potential for Cross-Protection Against Gonorrhea

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Meningococcal vaccine antigens may generate an immune response that recognizes gonococcal proteins.

Adacel Approved for Repeat Vaccination Against Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis

Adacel Approved for Repeat Vaccination Against Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis

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The approval was based on data from the Td537 study which included individuals 18-64 years old who had received a dose of Adacel 8-12 years prior (N=1330).

How Common Is Anaphylaxis Following Vaccination?

How Common Is Anaphylaxis Following Vaccination?

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To investigate the incidence of anaphylaxis after vaccination, study authors reviewed data submitted to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) between 1990 and 2016.

Zika Vaccine Cost-Effective for Young Adults and Childbearing-Age Women

Zika Vaccine Cost-Effective for Young Adults and Childbearing-Age Women

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The most cost-effective means of decreasing transmission of Zika virus is administration of the vaccine to young adults and women of childbearing age.

Stethoscope Cleaning Standards May Not Eliminate Bacterial Contamination

Stethoscope Cleaning Standards May Not Eliminate Bacterial Contamination

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In-hospital stethoscope cleaning practices may only be partially effective at eliminating bacterial DNA.

Screening Blood Donations Mitigates Transfusion-Transmitted Babesiosis Risk

Screening Blood Donations Mitigates Transfusion-Transmitted Babesiosis Risk

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Screening blood donations for Babesia microti in endemic areas eliminates transfusion-transmitted babesiosis effectively.

Measles Outbreak in New York State Largest in Recent History

Measles Outbreak in New York State Largest in Recent History

There have been at least 112 confirmed cases of measles in Rockland and Orange counties and at least 55 in New York City.

Antibiotic Recalled After Rubber Flecks Found in Reconstituted Vials

Antibiotic Recalled After Rubber Flecks Found in Reconstituted Vials

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The issue was identified upon standard visual inspection before administration to the patient and was not observed prior to reconstitution.

Rx Opioids Up Pneumonia Risk in Patients With, Without HIV

Rx Opioids Up Pneumonia Risk in Patients With, Without HIV

Risk greatest with higher-dose opioids and opioids with immunosuppressive properties

Targeted Blood Donor Screening for Zika More Cost Effective vs Universal

Targeted Blood Donor Screening for Zika More Cost Effective vs Universal

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Screening the donated blood supply for Zika virus is only cost-effective during the high mosquito season in Puerto Rico, but not in the United States.

Early IV Fluids Linked to Lower Mortality in Some Patients With Sepsis

Early IV Fluids Linked to Lower Mortality in Some Patients With Sepsis

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Early administration of IV fluids by paramedics to patients with sepsis was linked with lower mortality, but only in patients with low initial systolic BP.

Time Between Sexual Partnerships Associated With STI Risk

Time Between Sexual Partnerships Associated With STI Risk

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The likelihood of a STI decreases for serially monogamous individuals when the time between partners is >4 months for women and >6 months for men.

Risk Factors Associated With Vascular Graft Infection Identified

Risk Factors Associated With Vascular Graft Infection Identified

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Perioperative prophylaxis and thorough postsurgical management may be key components in helping to prevent vascular graft infections.

Risk Stratification of Febrile Infants Without Routine Lumbar Puncture

Risk Stratification of Febrile Infants Without Routine Lumbar Puncture

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A modified Philadelphia criterion for risk stratification of febrile infants with invasive bacterial infection had high sensitivity without CSF testing.

Fractional Yellow Fever Vaccine Dose Protective for 10 Years

Fractional Yellow Fever Vaccine Dose Protective for 10 Years

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A one-fifth dose of the 17D-YFV vaccine against yellow fever induced a protective immune response that lasted for 10 years.

Current Polio Eradication Program Suboptimal for Cross-Immunity to Poliovirus Type 2

Current Polio Eradication Program Suboptimal for Cross-Immunity to Poliovirus Type 2

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The polio eradication program cannot assume any poliovirus type 2 mucosal response with the current polio immunization schedule.

Trial Evaluating <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> Vaccine Halted

Trial Evaluating Staphylococcus aureus Vaccine Halted

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The aim of the STRIVE study was to investigate whether a single vaccination given 10-60 days before spinal surgery could prevent S. aureus infection in adults undergoing elective spinal fusion surgery.

Potential of HIV-Protective Drugs Administered Via Rectal Douches

Potential of HIV-Protective Drugs Administered Via Rectal Douches

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Rectal douches could be a viable option to deliver HIV-protective drugs to men who practice receptive anal intercourse with other men.

Sequential Prenatal, Postnatal Neuroimaging in Zika-Exposed Infants

Sequential Prenatal, Postnatal Neuroimaging in Zika-Exposed Infants

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Sequential neuroimaging indicated that prenatal and postnatal ultrasonography may identify Zika virus-related brain injury in most patients.

Whole Genome Sequencing Use in Predicting TB Resistance

Whole Genome Sequencing Use in Predicting TB Resistance

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Whole genome sequencing of M tuberculosis isolates can identify complete drug susceptibility profiles, allowing precise treatment in early TB infection.

Infants and Elderly Most at Risk for Bordetella pertussis

Infants and Elderly Most at Risk for Bordetella pertussis

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Hospitalization of severe pertussis infections was reported across all age groups, but the youngest and oldest individuals may be the most vulnerable.

SGLT2 Inhibitors and Urinary Tract Infections: What's the Link?

SGLT2 Inhibitors and Urinary Tract Infections: What's the Link?

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For this study, the authors identified randomized controlled trials that compared SGLT2 inhibitors with placebo, no treatment, or another antidiabetic agent and reported on UTI outcome.

Cisplatin Superior to Cetuximab for HPV+ Oropharyngeal Cancer

Cisplatin Superior to Cetuximab for HPV+ Oropharyngeal Cancer

For treatment of HPV positive low-risk oropharyngeal cancer, cetuximab shows no benefit compared with the standard cisplatin regimen in terms of reduced toxicity and results in worse tumor control.

Stethoscopes in ICU Show High Levels of Bacterial Contamination

Stethoscopes in ICU Show High Levels of Bacterial Contamination

Stethoscopes in the intensive care unit have high levels of bacterial contamination.

Risk for Herpes Zoster Elevated Prior to Hematologic Cancers

Risk for Herpes Zoster Elevated Prior to Hematologic Cancers

The risk for herpes zoster (zoster) is elevated during the two years preceding diagnosis and during treatment of hematological cancer.

Best Approach to Reduce Surgical Site Infections Before Colorectal Surgery

Best Approach to Reduce Surgical Site Infections Before Colorectal Surgery

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Mechanical bowel preparation with oral antibiotics may be the best approach to reduce surgical site infections in patients undergoing colorectal surgery.

Prenatal Malaria Exposure Modulates Innate Immune Responses at Birth

Prenatal Malaria Exposure Modulates Innate Immune Responses at Birth

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Placental malaria has a profound effect on the fetal immune system, and prenatal malaria exposure categories may drive heterogeneity to malaria susceptibility.

Three New Ebola Vaccines Demonstrate Persistent Immune Response

Three New Ebola Vaccines Demonstrate Persistent Immune Response

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The immunogenicity generated by 3 experimental Ebola vaccines appears to be long-lasting, as it has persisted for at least 2.5 years.

Antibiotic Use in Early Childhood Modestly Increases Risk for Subsequent Obesity

Antibiotic Use in Early Childhood Modestly Increases Risk for Subsequent Obesity

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The use of antibiotics in children younger than 24 months was modestly associated with being overweight and obese at age 5 years.

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