Respiratory

No Benefit of Induced Hypothermia for Septic Shock

No Benefit of Induced Hypothermia for Septic Shock

By

Induced hypothermia (target temperature 32°C-34°C) proved harmful with regards to respiratory function and it also prolonged septic shock.

Case Study: Persistent Upper Respiratory Infection in a 44-Year-Old Man

Case Study: Persistent Upper Respiratory Infection in a 44-Year-Old Man

By

A middle-aged man with no significant medical history presents to the local urgent care center after 3 days of fevers, sore throat, rhinitis, coughing, and myalgia.

Decreased Tuberculosis Risk With Metformin vs Sulfonylureas

Decreased Tuberculosis Risk With Metformin vs Sulfonylureas

By

Patients with type 2 diabetes treated with sulfonylureas may be at a higher risk of contracting tuberculosis.

Viral respiratory infections associated with increased risk of acute myocardial infarction

In a self-controlled case series, patients were observed to have increased incidence of hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction within 7 days of respiratory virus detection.

Antibody Response Detected From Swabs Predicts Respiratory Viral Infection

Antibody Response Detected From Swabs Predicts Respiratory Viral Infection

By

A simple diagnostic test aids in the early and accurate detection of respiratory viral infection.

Shorter pediatric tuberculosis treatment linked to higher completion rates

Children with tuberculosis who received 3 months of directly observed preventative therapy were >25 times more likely to complete their treatment regimen than those who received 9 months of self-administered therapy.

Human Rhinovirus in Febrile Infants Does Not Alter UTI Risk

Human Rhinovirus in Febrile Infants Does Not Alter UTI Risk

Human rhinovirus is common in febrile infants, and detection does not alter risk of concomitant UTI.

Detection of respiratory viruses in febrile infants suggests lower risk of bacterial infection

Respiratory viruses were identified in 55% of febrile infants; those older than 28 days had a lower risk of bacterial infection when they tested positive for a respiratory virus.

Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Uncommon After Meningitis Evaluation

Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Uncommon After Meningitis Evaluation

Young infants assessed for central nervous system infection rarely have herpes simplex virus.

Update to Pulmonary Tuberculosis Screening Recommendations

Update to Pulmonary Tuberculosis Screening Recommendations

By

Report updated the 2006 American College of Chest Physicians clinical practice guideline for cough due to TB and other chronic infections.

Acute RTI in Children: Broad- vs Narrow-Spectrum Antibiotics

Acute RTI in Children: Broad- vs Narrow-Spectrum Antibiotics

Broad-spectrum antibiotics are not associated with better clinical or patient-centered outcomes compared with narrow-spectrum antibiotics in pediatric acute RTI.

Primary Prophylaxis Reduces Pneumocystis Pneumonia in Rheumatic Disease

Primary Prophylaxis Reduces Pneumocystis Pneumonia in Rheumatic Disease

By

Prolonged treatment with high-dose steroids is a significant risk factor for pneumocystis pneumonia in patients with hematologic malignancies, solid organ transplants, and rheumatic diseases.

Influenza Vaccination Rates Moderately Increase With Text Message Reminders

Influenza Vaccination Rates Moderately Increase With Text Message Reminders

SMS reminders are moderately effective in increasing the amount of people receiving the influenza vaccine.

Reduced Rate of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia With Nebulized Antibiotics

Reduced Rate of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia With Nebulized Antibiotics

By

Prophylactic antibiotics delivered by nebulization in patients who were mechanically ventilated reduced the rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia

HPV Vaccine Linked to Lower Respiratory Papillomatosis Rates

HPV Vaccine Linked to Lower Respiratory Papillomatosis Rates

Incidence of juvenile-onset respiratory papillomatosis declined with the introduction of a HPV vaccination program.

Likelihood of Self-Administered Treatment Completion for Latent TB

Likelihood of Self-Administered Treatment Completion for Latent TB

By

The iAdhere study found that once-weekly self-administration of isoniazid and rifapentine had high treatment completion rates in the United States, Hong Kong, Spain, and South Africa.

Zoonotic Potential of <i>C caviae</i> Resulting in Severe CAP Described

Zoonotic Potential of C caviae Resulting in Severe CAP Described

Three cases of community-acquired pneumonia involving Chlamydia caviae after exposure to ill guinea pigs have been described

Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis to Increase in 4 High-Burden Countries

Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis to Increase in 4 High-Burden Countries

Additional strategies to prevent transmission will be necessary to stop multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in countries with a high burden of MDR tuberculosis.

Challenges in Diagnosing Tuberculous Meningitis

Challenges in Diagnosing Tuberculous Meningitis

By

Diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis is challenging, although new, next-generation rapid POC testing holds promise for greatly improved sensitivity. Shorter and more effective treatments are needed.

Preterm Infants at Higher Risk for RSV Hospitalization Following 2014 Guidance

Preterm Infants at Higher Risk for RSV Hospitalization Following 2014 Guidance

By

New data shows a higher risk of respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization for preterm infants during the 2015-2016 season vs data from the previous season.

Increase in Long-Term Risk of Pneumonia With GERD

Increase in Long-Term Risk of Pneumonia With GERD

By

Gastroesophageal reflux disease is associated with long-term risk of pneumonia in a younger population of patients treated with PPIs.

Enteral Gram-Negative Colonization Associated With New ICU Infections

Enteral Gram-Negative Colonization Associated With New ICU Infections

By

Researchers concluded that risk of ICU acquired Gram-negative bacteria was low in mechanically ventilated patients receiving selective digestive tract decontamination.

FDA: Priority Review Granted to Expand Indications for Ceftazidime/Avibactam

FDA: Priority Review Granted to Expand Indications for Ceftazidime/Avibactam

By

The FDA has granted priority review for Avycaz (ceftazidime/avibactam) to expand the current indications.

Isoniazid-Rifapentine for Latent TB Sees High Completion Rates

Isoniazid-Rifapentine for Latent TB Sees High Completion Rates

By

Isoniazid-rifapentine regimen sees high completion rates for latent tuberculosis infection.

Respiratory Infections, Repeat Surgeries Up SSI Risk in Total Joint Arthroplasty

Respiratory Infections, Repeat Surgeries Up SSI Risk in Total Joint Arthroplasty

By

Total knee arthroplasty is more commonly linked to surgical site infection compared to total hip arthroplasty.

Metformin Reduces Mortality During Tuberculosis Therapy

Metformin Reduces Mortality During Tuberculosis Therapy

By

Researchers assess all-cause mortality during tuberculosis treatment in patients with diabetes, the use of metformin, and effect sputum culture-conversion rates.

Accuracy of Negative Tuberculin Skin Test in Predicting In-Hospital Tuberculosis  Mortality

Accuracy of Negative Tuberculin Skin Test in Predicting In-Hospital Tuberculosis Mortality

By

The relationship between negative tuberculin skin test and in-hospital mortality has not been previously studied.

Efficacy of Delafloxacin in Treating Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia

Efficacy of Delafloxacin in Treating Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia

By

The efficacy of delafloxacin in treating Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilius influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis isolates was examined.

Risk for TB Infection Predicted by New Scoring System

Risk for TB Infection Predicted by New Scoring System

By

This new risk score may guide the identification of high-risk people who would benefit from preventative measures.

Labored Breathing, Hypoxemia May Indicate Pneumonia in Children

Labored Breathing, Hypoxemia May Indicate Pneumonia in Children

By

Difficulty breathing and hypoxemia may be a better indication of pneumonia in children.

Sign Up for Free e-newsletters