Respiratory

Could a New Universal Tuberculosis Regimen Help End the TB Pandemic?

Could a New Universal Tuberculosis Regimen Help End the TB Pandemic?

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The Lancet Respiratory Medicine staged a debate between proponents and opponents of pan-TB regimens to tackle the current suboptimal worldwide management of TB resistance.

Prior Atypical Antipsychotic Use May Increase Mortality Risk in Pneumonia

Prior Atypical Antipsychotic Use May Increase Mortality Risk in Pneumonia

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Clinicians should consider these findings when using atypical antipsychotics in patients at risk for pneumonia.

Simple Blood-Based PCR Test Can Predict Progression to Tuberculosis

Simple Blood-Based PCR Test Can Predict Progression to Tuberculosis

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Study identifies and validates a simple PCR-based test from accessible blood samples that predicts TB in heterogeneous African populations with intermediate to high TB burdens.

Two Novel Immune-Response Clusters Identified to RSV

Two Novel Immune-Response Clusters Identified to RSV

Two novel immune-response clusters have been identified to respiratory syncytial virus, tied to first-, second-year recurrent wheeze.

Positive Results Announced for Pleuromutilin Antibiotic in CABP

Positive Results Announced for Pleuromutilin Antibiotic in CABP

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In the LEAP 2 study (N=738), patients with moderate CABP received either oral lefamulin 600mg every 12 hours for 5 days or oral moxifloxacin 400mg once daily for 7 days.

Procalcitonin Assay Doesn't Cut Antibiotic Use in Lower RTI

Procalcitonin Assay Doesn't Cut Antibiotic Use in Lower RTI

Provision of assay doesn't result in less antibiotic use for suspected lower respiratory tract infection

Flu Vaccines Have High Impact, Even With Relatively Low Efficacy

Flu Vaccines Have High Impact, Even With Relatively Low Efficacy

Even relatively low-efficacy influenza vaccines can have a high impact, especially with optimal distribution across age groups.

Pneumonia Risk in Severe COPD Linked to Elevated Eosinophil Count

Pneumonia Risk in Severe COPD Linked to Elevated Eosinophil Count

A higher proportion of patients with COPD and a blood eosinophil count of ≥0.34×109/L had elevated markers of low-grade systemic inflammation regardless of forced expiratory volume in 1 second.

COPD Risk in Middle-Age: The 3-Way Interaction of Asthma, Smoking, and Measles

COPD Risk in Middle-Age: The 3-Way Interaction of Asthma, Smoking, and Measles

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A childhood measles infection may increase the risk for post-bronchodilator airflow obstruction in middle-age adults via its interaction with asthma and smoking.

Increased Pollution Exposure Ups Health Care Visits for Acute LRI

Increased Pollution Exposure Ups Health Care Visits for Acute LRI

Short-term exposure to fine particulate matter is associated with increased health care utilization for acute lower respiratory infection.

Cavity Volume and Proximity to Airway May Affect Tuberculosis Treatment

Cavity Volume and Proximity to Airway May Affect Tuberculosis Treatment

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Large cavitary lung disease may increase cough frequency that lasts for a longer duration in individuals with tuberculosis.

CDC: Declining Incidence of TB in the United States Remains Inadequate for Elimination

CDC: Declining Incidence of TB in the United States Remains Inadequate for Elimination

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Control of active tuberculosis (TB) and a major effort to decrease latent TB infection are both necessary to reduce morbidity and achieve TB elimination in the United States.

Mortality in Mechanically Ventilated Community-Acquired Pneumonia With or Without ARDS

Mortality in Mechanically Ventilated Community-Acquired Pneumonia With or Without ARDS

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The risk for death in patients with community-acquired pneumonia who were given mechanical ventilation does not seem to be affected by the presence of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Fluoroquinolone Use May Increase Risk for Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection

Fluoroquinolone Use May Increase Risk for Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection

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Additional studies are needed to investigate whether there are differences between individual fluoroquinolones with respect to the risk for aortic aneurysm.

Paracetamol Overuse During Cold and Flu Season

Paracetamol Overuse During Cold and Flu Season

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During the cold and flu season, the use and over-dosing of paracetamol is common, and may partially be driven by higher use of over-the-counter combination medications for the treatment of upper respiratory cold/flu symptoms.

Pneumonia and Influenza May Trigger Acute MI, Stroke

Pneumonia and Influenza May Trigger Acute MI, Stroke

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Researchers found increased myocardial infarction rates during the week after Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza infections.

A 56-Year-Old Man With Flu-Like Symptoms Presents With Palpitations

A 56-Year-Old Man With Flu-Like Symptoms Presents With Palpitations

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A 56-year-old man with improved flu-like symptoms, but marked shortness of breath and palpitations, presents to an urgent care center.

Increased Risk for Acute Respiratory Illness Following Influenza Vaccine in Children

Increased Risk for Acute Respiratory Illness Following Influenza Vaccine in Children

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Among children there was an increased risk for acute respiratory illness caused by noninfluenza respiratory pathogens following influenza vaccination compared to unvaccinated children during the same period.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Prevention and Asthma in Preterm Infants

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Prevention and Asthma in Preterm Infants

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Researchers assessed the relationship between prevention of RSV in preterm infants and the frequency of subsequent wheeze in childhood.

Duration of Antibiotics Often Exceeds Guidelines for Sinusitis

Duration of Antibiotics Often Exceeds Guidelines for Sinusitis

When antibiotics are indicated for the treatment of acute bacterial sinusitis, the Infectious Diseases Society of America evidence-based clinical practice guidelines recommend 5 to 7 days of therapy for patients with a low risk of antibiotic resistance who have a favorable response to initial therapy.

1980 to 2014 Saw Decrease in US Mortality From Infectious Diseases

1980 to 2014 Saw Decrease in US Mortality From Infectious Diseases

There were declines in mortality from most categories of infectious diseases, with large differences among US counties. However, over this time there was an increase in mortality for diarrheal diseases.

<i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> in Patients Diagnosed With Bronchiectasis Without Cystic Fibrosis

Staphylococcus aureus in Patients Diagnosed With Bronchiectasis Without Cystic Fibrosis

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In an attempt to determine if the presence of S aureus could be used as a marker for more severe disease, investigators assessed the relationship between S aureus-positive bronchiectasis infection and pulmonary function, frequency of exacerbations, and hospital admissions.

Measles in Childhood Affects Airflow Obstruction in Midlife

Measles in Childhood Affects Airflow Obstruction in Midlife

Childhood measles compounds the association between smoking and midlife airflow obstruction.

In-Flight Transmission of Respiratory Diseases Low

In-Flight Transmission of Respiratory Diseases Low

The probability of direct transmission of respiratory diseases for passengers on transcontinental US flights not seated in close proximity to an infectious passenger is low.

Shorter Tuberculosis Regimens Associated With Greater Treatment Adherence

Shorter Tuberculosis Regimens Associated With Greater Treatment Adherence

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Children receiving 3 months of once-weekly isoniazid and rifapentine were more likely to complete therapy than those receiving 9 months of daily isoniazid.

Safety Profile of Investigational RSV Vaccine Similar to Tdap Vaccine

Safety Profile of Investigational RSV Vaccine Similar to Tdap Vaccine

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All formulations of a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) candidate vaccine were able to boost RSV antibody titers and their safety profile was similar to the Tdap vaccine.

Case: Fever, Generalized Weakness One Year After Heart Transplant

Case: Fever, Generalized Weakness One Year After Heart Transplant

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Middle-aged woman who received a heart transplant 1 year ago because of dilated cardiomyopathy now presents with mild fever and generalized weakness.

Pulse Oximetry May Aid Pneumonia Diagnosis in Patients With Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

Pulse Oximetry May Aid Pneumonia Diagnosis in Patients With Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

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The utilization of this tool could prevent severe complications secondary to delayed pneumonia diagnosis and treatment.

No Benefit of Induced Hypothermia for Septic Shock

No Benefit of Induced Hypothermia for Septic Shock

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Induced hypothermia (target temperature 32°C-34°C) proved harmful with regards to respiratory function and it also prolonged septic shock.

Case Study: Persistent Upper Respiratory Infection in a 44-Year-Old Man

Case Study: Persistent Upper Respiratory Infection in a 44-Year-Old Man

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A middle-aged man with no significant medical history presents to the local urgent care center after 3 days of fevers, sore throat, rhinitis, coughing, and myalgia.

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