Respiratory

Community-Acquired Pneumonia In-Hospital Deaths Are Not Indicative of Lapse in Care

Community-Acquired Pneumonia In-Hospital Deaths Are Not Indicative of Lapse in Care

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Most deaths related to community-acquired pneumonia that occurred at tertiary-case hospitals were not preventable.

CDC: Updated Recommendations for Latent TB Infection Treatment

CDC: Updated Recommendations for Latent TB Infection Treatment

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The CDC has issued updated recommendations regarding the use of 3HP for the treatment of latent tuberculosis.

Respiratory Viruses Linked to Treatment Failure in Asthma Exacerbations

Respiratory Viruses Linked to Treatment Failure in Asthma Exacerbations

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Respiratory pathogens were associated with an increased risk for treatment failure in children with asthma exacerbations.

Priority Review Granted to Novel Oral Influenza Treatment

Priority Review Granted to Novel Oral Influenza Treatment

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Baloxavir marboxil, an investigational, oral treatment for acute uncomplicated influenza in those aged ≥12 years has been granted Priority Review by the FDA.

CDC Surveillance Information for the 2017-2018 Influenza Season in the United States

CDC Surveillance Information for the 2017-2018 Influenza Season in the United States

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The 2017-2018 influenza season in the United States (October 1, 2017-May 19, 2018) was a high-severity season.

Increase in VA Legionnaires' Disease Rates From 2014 to 2016

Increase in VA Legionnaires' Disease Rates From 2014 to 2016

There was an increase in Legionnaires' Disease (LD) from 2014 to 2016.

Mandatory Influenza Vaccination Advised for Healthcare Personnel in VA, Non-VA Hospitals

Mandatory Influenza Vaccination Advised for Healthcare Personnel in VA, Non-VA Hospitals

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A national survey was conducted to assess influenza prevention practices in Veterans Affairs and non-Veterans Affairs hospitals in the United States.

CDC: Invasive MRSA More Likely Among Injection Drug Users

CDC: Invasive MRSA More Likely Among Injection Drug Users

Injection drug users are more than 16-fold more likely to develop invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.

Improving Type-Based Surveillance of Enterovirus and Parechovirus

Improving Type-Based Surveillance of Enterovirus and Parechovirus

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Between 2014 and 2016, a total of 2967 cases of enterovirus and parechovirus were reported to the National Enterovirus Surveillance System in the United States.

PCV13 Reduces Hospitalization for Vaccine-Type Community-Acquired Pneumonia

PCV13 Reduces Hospitalization for Vaccine-Type Community-Acquired Pneumonia

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The real-world effectiveness of PCV13 vaccine in preventing hospitalization for vaccine-type community-acquired pneumonia was assessed.

Respiratory Pathogens May Increase Asthma Treatment Failure Risk

Respiratory Pathogens May Increase Asthma Treatment Failure Risk

Respiratory pathogens are associated with increased risk of treatment failure in children with asthma exacerbations.

C-Reactive Protein as a Biomarker for CAP in Bronchiectasis

C-Reactive Protein as a Biomarker for CAP in Bronchiectasis

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Although clinical presentation was similar in both community-acquired pneumonia and non-pneumonia exacerbations, CRP, glucose, and leukocytes were higher in the former vs the latter.

FDA Issues Final Guidance on Inhalational Anthrax

FDA Issues Final Guidance on Inhalational Anthrax

The FDA has issued final guidance to assist in the development of drugs for the prevention of inhalational anthrax.

Viruses not linked to asthma exacerbation severity

Identified viral pathogens were not associated with asthma exacerbation severity, but were linked to increased treatment failure.

Independent Predictors of Bronchiolitis Mortality After ED Discharge

Independent Predictors of Bronchiolitis Mortality After ED Discharge

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Infants with bronchiolitis and comorbidities plus other predictive factors are at higher risk for death following discharge from the emergency department.

Children Typically Have 14 Simple Infections by Age 3 Years

Children Typically Have 14 Simple Infections by Age 3 Years

Children experience a median of 14 infections during their first three years of life, though there is large variation in incidence.

Early Clinical Response With Omadacycline vs Moxifloxacin in CABP

Early Clinical Response With Omadacycline vs Moxifloxacin in CABP

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Early clinical response rates were similar across PORT risk class subgroups in patients with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia when treated with omadacycline or moxifloxacin.

Prevnar 13 Linked to Reduced Risk of CAP Hospitalization in Older Patients

Prevnar 13 Linked to Reduced Risk of CAP Hospitalization in Older Patients

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PCV13, marketed as Prevnar 13, was evaluated in a test-negative case-control study in real-world conditions where patients were administered pneumococcal vaccination as advised by their healthcare providers.

Could a New Universal Tuberculosis Regimen Help End the TB Pandemic?

Could a New Universal Tuberculosis Regimen Help End the TB Pandemic?

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The Lancet Respiratory Medicine staged a debate between proponents and opponents of pan-TB regimens to tackle the current suboptimal worldwide management of TB resistance.

Prior Atypical Antipsychotic Use May Increase Mortality Risk in Pneumonia

Prior Atypical Antipsychotic Use May Increase Mortality Risk in Pneumonia

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Clinicians should consider these findings when using atypical antipsychotics in patients at risk for pneumonia.

Simple Blood-Based PCR Test Can Predict Progression to Tuberculosis

Simple Blood-Based PCR Test Can Predict Progression to Tuberculosis

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Study identifies and validates a simple PCR-based test from accessible blood samples that predicts TB in heterogeneous African populations with intermediate to high TB burdens.

Two Novel Immune-Response Clusters Identified to RSV

Two Novel Immune-Response Clusters Identified to RSV

Two novel immune-response clusters have been identified to respiratory syncytial virus, tied to first-, second-year recurrent wheeze.

Procalcitonin Assay Doesn't Cut Antibiotic Use in Lower RTI

Procalcitonin Assay Doesn't Cut Antibiotic Use in Lower RTI

Provision of assay doesn't result in less antibiotic use for suspected lower respiratory tract infection.

Positive Results Announced for Pleuromutilin Antibiotic in CABP

Positive Results Announced for Pleuromutilin Antibiotic in CABP

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In the LEAP 2 study (N=738), patients with moderate CABP received either oral lefamulin 600mg every 12 hours for 5 days or oral moxifloxacin 400mg once daily for 7 days.

Flu Vaccines Have High Impact, Even With Relatively Low Efficacy

Flu Vaccines Have High Impact, Even With Relatively Low Efficacy

Even relatively low-efficacy influenza vaccines can have a high impact, especially with optimal distribution across age groups.

Pneumonia Risk in Severe COPD Linked to Elevated Eosinophil Count

Pneumonia Risk in Severe COPD Linked to Elevated Eosinophil Count

A higher proportion of patients with COPD and a blood eosinophil count of ≥0.34×109/L had elevated markers of low-grade systemic inflammation regardless of forced expiratory volume in 1 second.

COPD Risk in Middle-Age: The 3-Way Interaction of Asthma, Smoking, and Measles

COPD Risk in Middle-Age: The 3-Way Interaction of Asthma, Smoking, and Measles

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A childhood measles infection may increase the risk for post-bronchodilator airflow obstruction in middle-age adults via its interaction with asthma and smoking.

Increased Pollution Exposure Ups Health Care Visits for Acute LRI

Increased Pollution Exposure Ups Health Care Visits for Acute LRI

Short-term exposure to fine particulate matter is associated with increased health care utilization for acute lower respiratory infection.

Cavity Volume and Proximity to Airway May Affect Tuberculosis Treatment

Cavity Volume and Proximity to Airway May Affect Tuberculosis Treatment

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Large cavitary lung disease may increase cough frequency that lasts for a longer duration in individuals with tuberculosis.

CDC: Declining Incidence of TB in the United States Remains Inadequate for Elimination

CDC: Declining Incidence of TB in the United States Remains Inadequate for Elimination

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Control of active tuberculosis (TB) and a major effort to decrease latent TB infection are both necessary to reduce morbidity and achieve TB elimination in the United States.

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