Treatments

Management <i>Mycobacterium chimaera</i> Outbreak From Heater-Cooler Units

Management Mycobacterium chimaera Outbreak From Heater-Cooler Units

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There is currently a global outbreak of disseminated Mycobacterium chimaera related to the widely used surgical device LivaNova 3T heater-cooler unit contamination.

Novel <i>H pylori</i> Eradication Therapy Effective in Phase 3 Trial

Novel H pylori Eradication Therapy Effective in Phase 3 Trial

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The ERADICATE Hp2 trial enrolled 455 dyspepsia patients at 55 sites across the US and randomized them to receive 4 capsules, 3 times daily, of either Talicia or the active comparator, for 14 days.

Topical 15% Paromomycin-Aquaphilic Effective For New World Leishmaniasis

Topical 15% Paromomycin-Aquaphilic Effective For New World Leishmaniasis

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Treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis, using 15% paromomycin-Aquaphilic, was superior to a negative vehicle control.

Biologic Agents Used to Treat Patients With Psoriasis and HIV Infection

Biologic Agents Used to Treat Patients With Psoriasis and HIV Infection

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Investigators evaluated the safety and effectiveness of conventional therapy with biologic immunosuppressive drugs to treat patients with HIV infection and psoriasis.

Re-Assessing Renal Dose Adjustments of Antibiotics: Expert Q&A

Re-Assessing Renal Dose Adjustments of Antibiotics: Expert Q&A

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For patients with serious infectious diseases, the first 48 hours represent a critical window for antibiotic administration.

USPSTF Suggests Universal HIV Screening, PrEP for High-Risk Patients

USPSTF Suggests Universal HIV Screening, PrEP for High-Risk Patients

Screening recommended for those ages 15 to 65 years, including pregnant women.

HCV Reinfection Rates Examined Following Successful Treatment

HCV Reinfection Rates Examined Following Successful Treatment

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In order to determine HCV reinfection rates following sustained virologic response (SVR) in the overall population as well as in PWID, the study authors analyzed data obtained from a population-based study that included >1.7 million people that were tested for HCV.

6-Week Antibiotic Treatment Effective for Spinal Surgery Site Infections

6-Week Antibiotic Treatment Effective for Spinal Surgery Site Infections

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Six-week antibiotic treatment is sufficient for early, spinal surgery site infections.

Glecaprevir/Pibrentasvir 8-Week Regimen Evaluated in Treatment-Naïve HCV Patients With Compensated Cirrhosis

Glecaprevir/Pibrentasvir 8-Week Regimen Evaluated in Treatment-Naïve HCV Patients With Compensated Cirrhosis

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In EXPEDITION-8, 280 treatment-naïve HCV patients (genotypes 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6) with compensated cirrhosis were treated with Mavyret for 8-weeks; the primary efficacy measure was SVR12 rate.

Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy Linked to Reduced Risk of Incident T2D in HCV Patients

Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy Linked to Reduced Risk of Incident T2D in HCV Patients

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The study compared US administrative claims data of HCV patients with ≥12 weeks of dispensed DAA therapy (N=17,848) to untreated HCV patients with follow-up data (N=108,350).

Antibiotic-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Tied to Clinical Failure in UTI

Antibiotic-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Tied to Clinical Failure in UTI

Poor clinical outcomes linked to extended spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

HBV Treatment Evaluation, Initiation Rates Compared Among Various Practice Settings

HBV Treatment Evaluation, Initiation Rates Compared Among Various Practice Settings

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The aim of the study was to assess both treatment evaluation and treatment initiation rates from various practice settings between January 2002 and December 2016.

Hepatotoxicity Risk Associated With Anidulafungin, Caspofungin, and Micafungin

Hepatotoxicity Risk Associated With Anidulafungin, Caspofungin, and Micafungin

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Anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin have shown similar risk profiles for severe hepatotoxicity.

Two New Typhoid Vaccines Show Efficacy in Reducing Rates of Stool Shedding

Two New Typhoid Vaccines Show Efficacy in Reducing Rates of Stool Shedding

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Shedding of Salmonella Typhi or Paratyphi in the stool/urine leads to contamination of food/water, but vaccines can reduce stool shedding.

Bioavailability of Coformulated ART Dispersible Tablet Comparable to Standard Formulation

Bioavailability of Coformulated ART Dispersible Tablet Comparable to Standard Formulation

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A dispersible fixed-dose combination tablet formulation of abacavir/dolutegravir/lamivudine for the treatment of HIV-1 had higher bioavailability of dolutegravir compared to the nondispersible film-coated tablet.

470 Percent Increase in HIV PrEP Use in US, 2014 to 2016

470 Percent Increase in HIV PrEP Use in US, 2014 to 2016

From 2014 to 2016 there was an increase in the annual number of HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) users in the United States.

<i>Clostridioides difficile</i> Infection Increases Likelihood of Non-Home Discharge

Clostridioides difficile Infection Increases Likelihood of Non-Home Discharge

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Patients admitted from the community who are hospitalized with Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile infection were more frequently discharged to a non-home location compared to patients without C difficile infection.

Seven-Day Metronidazole Better for Trichomoniasis Tx in Women

Seven-Day Metronidazole Better for Trichomoniasis Tx in Women

A seven-day dose of metronidazole is associated with a reduced likelihood of being Trichomonas vaginalis-positive at test-of-cure compared with single-dose treatment.

New Data Suggests Change in Daptomycin Breakpoint for Enterococcal Bacteremia

New Data Suggests Change in Daptomycin Breakpoint for Enterococcal Bacteremia

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A ratio of free drug area under the concentration-time curve to MIC for daptomycin was linked with an higher 30-day survival in some with bacteremia.

Antipseudomonal Monotherapy Efficacious in Pneumonia

Antipseudomonal Monotherapy Efficacious in Pneumonia

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Antipseudomonal combination therapy has shown poorer efficacy than antipseudomonal monotherapy in individuals with suspected pseudomonal pneumonia.

Baloxavir Marboxil Safe and Effective for High-Risk Influenza Patients

Baloxavir Marboxil Safe and Effective for High-Risk Influenza Patients

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When compared to placebo, baloxavir marboxil was associated with reduced risk of influenza complications and faster recovery.

Sustained Hepatitis C Treatment Associated With Lower Risk for Cardiovascular Events

Sustained Hepatitis C Treatment Associated With Lower Risk for Cardiovascular Events

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Treatment for hepatitis C is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular events.

Antibiotic Stewardship May Aid Stepdown Therapies for Community-Acquired Pneumonia

Antibiotic Stewardship May Aid Stepdown Therapies for Community-Acquired Pneumonia

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The use of fluoroquinolones in stable patients with community-acquired pneumonia can be reduced with stewardship programs that share antibiotic use data and provide guidance for step-down therapy.

Oral Ciprofloxacin Effective in Treatment for Bacteremia

Oral Ciprofloxacin Effective in Treatment for Bacteremia

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Oral ciprofloxacin has been found to be an effective option for gram-negative bacteremia treatment.

CYP2D6 Enzymatic Activity May Increase Primaquine Malaria Treatment Efficacy

CYP2D6 Enzymatic Activity May Increase Primaquine Malaria Treatment Efficacy

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A natural variability of genotype-determined, CYP2D6-dependent metabolism of primaquine phosphate is associated with an increased risk of failure in the treatment of P vivax malaria.

Rezafungin Gets Fast Track, QIDP Status for Prevention of Invasive Fungal Infections

Rezafungin Gets Fast Track, QIDP Status for Prevention of Invasive Fungal Infections

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The Phase 3 ReSPECT prophylaxis trial of rezafungin in patients undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is anticipated to start in the first quarter of 2019.

Short Course Primaquine Regimens for <i>P vivax</i> Malaria Improves Treatment Efficacy

Short Course Primaquine Regimens for P vivax Malaria Improves Treatment Efficacy

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Chloroquine with either 7- or 14-day primaquine regimens provided highly effective radical cure of vivax malaria on the Thailand-Myanmar border.

Certain Patient Characteristics May Augment Tenofovir in Viral Suppression of HIV

Certain Patient Characteristics May Augment Tenofovir in Viral Suppression of HIV

Tenofovir diphosphate in dried blood spots was strongly associated with virologic suppression in those living with HIV on TDF-based therapies.

Corticosteroid Use May Modestly Reduce Mortality Risk in Sepsis

Corticosteroid Use May Modestly Reduce Mortality Risk in Sepsis

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The use of corticosteroids in sepsis appears to modestly reduce the risk for death and modestly increase neuromuscular weakness but the evidence is not definitive.

Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations May Predict Risk of Relapse in Tuberculosis

Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations May Predict Risk of Relapse in Tuberculosis

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Higher minimum inhibitory concentration values of isoniazid or rifampin are associated with a greater risk of relapse in drug-susceptible tuberculosis than lower MICs.

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